Running in the park is fun. 主語
I like running in the park. 目的語
The boy running in the park is Ken. 修飾語
Making new friends is not so easy.
Crying is natural.
My baby’s constant crying is pretty stressful. 意味上の主語=所有格
I like playing video games with my buddies.
go/come + -ing ～しに行く、しにくる
My kid sister is great at dancing hip-hop.
× He is great at to play golf. to不定詞は不可
A. 説明型の -ing形（進行形）
My brother is acting like an idiot – as usual!
My hobby is collecting antique watches. 動名詞
The book is interesting. 形容詞
The man scolding those 2 boys is the headmaster.
Sorry to keep you waiting.
His jokes had the entire audience rolling in the aisles.
I saw your girlfriend getting into a taxi with a tall, good-looking guy!
the working class
The player fell to the ground clutching his ankle.
I’ve spent all morning cleaning up after the party.
I was busy sweeping up the fallen leaves.
E. 文の説明 分詞構文
He broke his collarbone playing rugby on Saturday.
A huge hurricane hit the city, causing untold destruction.
She left a note on the door, finding nobody home.
We met some wonderful people while holidaying in France.
Pushing open the front door, I was shocked to see a body lying on the floor.
The little boy, screaming and kicking, was dragged out of the shop by his mother.
The speaker went on and on, the audience getting more and more bored by the minute. 分詞構文の主語
Having never been in such a situation before, I had no idea what to do. 主文より以前