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nouns 名詞

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①可算か不可算か
②可算なら単数か複数か
③どういった文脈上の意味(特定・不特定)を持たせたいのか a, the, some, any, no

①可算・不可算
You’re lucky you have so many friends.
We never get much rain here.

②単数・複数
dog
dogs

③詳細な限定を加える限定詞
I love dogs.
I love the dog next door.

Water is a vital resource.
Could you I have some water these pills with?

□名詞を中心とする形
限定詞 + 形容詞 + 名詞

冠詞類
athe
some

数量表現
many
a lot of
one
two

指示語
this
that

可算名詞・不可算名詞

I have a cat, but I hate dogs.
In summer, my dad drinks beer every night.

I have many dogs.  多   I don’t have much water.  多
I have a few dogs.  数匹   I have a little water.  小

a lot of, lots of, plenty of  共通

Could I have a cup of coffee, please?

単数名詞・複数名詞

He comes from a large family.
There are 2 Indian families living near us.
My family are / is all into skiing.

The rich are sometimes stingy. けちな

20 miles is a long way to run.

I made friends with Karen.

限定詞

I like wine. ~というもの
We need poster paper, marker pens, and glue. リストアップ のり

I met Karen’s boyfriend last night. The guy is not friendly at all. 文脈から1つ
Close the door! 状況から1つ
The world is our classroom. 常識から1つ

My dream is to live in a world free of poverty.

Chiaki Mukai was the first Japanese woman to travel into space.
You are the only girl I’ve ever loved.
Who is the youngest of the three?

Look at the penguins over there. 1つのグループ

I’d like a chocolate donut. – Just one, please.
Karen’s got a new boyfriend. The guy is not friendly at all. 話題初登場
I need to find a part-time job. 特定のものではない

Show me the other. もう一方を
Can you show me another? 他のもう一つ
Can you show me the others? ほかの種類全部
Can you show me others? 他の機種

There are some squirrels in your garden. ボンヤリと意識
I need some olive oil for the salad.

Any parent would want the best for their child. なんでも
Do you have any other questions?
I don’t like any sports.
If you need any more information, just let me know.

The kids were all amazed. All the kids were amazed. ひっくるめて全部
We all had fun.
You can have it all.
I’m all for the plan.
They traveled all over Japan.
The thief took all the money. all+不可算名詞

I hope every customer is satisfied. 緻密なすべて 単数で受ける

Every child has his own room.
Every child has his/her own room.
Every child has their own room. Political Correctness

Each member has their own locker. どのメンバにも 単数で受ける

We each have our own skills.
Each of us has his/her own skills.

Nobody came to my party.
I looked everywhere, but I found nothing.
No, problem. I’ll fix it in no time.

There are no seats left. > There aren’t any seats left.

No water is left in the tank. 不可算
No student is / No students are allowed in the staff room. 可算、通常は複数

Both my kids are excellent swimmers. 2つのうちその両方
I love the puppy and the kitten. Can I have both, Mom?
I asked both Keiko and Rina out and they both turned me down!

You can invest in stock or property, but either way it’s risky. どちらでも
I have a blue sweater and a red one – you can borrow either.
I listened to his first two CDs, but didn’t like either album very much.
どちらも~でない
Either Tom or Bill is going to make the presentation. そのどちらか

I like spinach. – I like it too. ~も ほうれん草
I don’t like spinach. – I don’t like it either. ~も(でない)
I don’t like spinach. – Neither do I. ~も(でない)

It was a deal in which neither side got what it really wanted. 両方とも~でない
Do you take milk and sugar? – Neither, thanks.
Neither Pat nor Gray is married.

You can take both. 両方とっていい
You can take either. どちらか一方をとっていい
You can take neither. どちらとってはいけない(両方だめ)

Both apples are rotten. 両方腐っている
Either apple is rotten. どちらかが腐っている
Neither apple is rotten. どちらも腐っていない

I don’t have many friends. 多い 可算名詞
Do you have much rain in October? 多い 不可算名詞

I have a lot of money. 平叙文ではmuch単独で使わない

much a lot of many
a good deal of lots of a good number of
a great deal of plenty of a great number of
a large amount of a large number of
a large quantity of

I have a few good friends. 少ない 可算名詞
I have little time for exercise these days. 少ない 不可算名詞

a little / little a few / few
a bit [英]

I have a few good friends. 少しいる
I have few good friends. 少ししかいない

I have a little money. 少しはある
I have little money. 少ししかない

We had too much wine and got drunk. 多すぎ
Quite a lot of people have applied for the job. かなりたくさん
Very few people here speak Japanese. ほとんどない
I have hardly any money. = I have almost no money. ほとんどない

too much too many

so much so many
a lot of
much many
quite a lot of
quite a few
some
several
a number of

a little a few
a couple of

little few

very little very few
hardly any
almost no

none

What do you think about this bag?
Whose is that red sports car over there?
Hey , check out these gorgeous earrings.
Those guys talking to Maria look a bit suspicious, don’t you think?
This is a really nice apartment.
Didn’t you know that?

Remember this. I will never let you down. 先取

Good friends are those who stick together through thick and thin. ~という人々

代名詞

Tom’s
the student’s
the students’
men’s women’s
his parents’ house

I visited my aunt’s.

Jerry, this is my friend Sue. 私の友達
Sue is a friend of mine. 友達の一人

I punched him in the face.
I punched his face.

Just relax and make yourself at home.

Who is it? better
Who are you?

It is difficult to speak English.
It is tough for me to lose 2 kilos.
It is surprising (that) he agreed to this deal.
It’s up to you whether/if you take him back (or not).
It’s still not clear when the election results will be announced.

It was my little sister that stepped on the cat yesterday. 強調構文
It was the cat that my little sister stepped on yesterday.
It was yesterday that my little sister stepped on the cat.

I lost my umbrella, but I found it.
I lost my umbrella, but I found one (= an umbrella).

Chris likes white wine better than red (wine). 不可算名詞にoneは不可

02名詞・冠詞- 英文法大全 - 英文法 英語 文法 表現 用法 英語学習
03 代名詞- 英文法大全 - 英文法 英語 文法 表現 用法 英語学習

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