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英語構文 Sentence structures

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  1. PART1: S+V+X+X
    1. Chapter 1 Sentence structures in Japanese style
      1. 1 S+V+[M]+[M] 第1文型 subject, verb, modifier
      2. 2 S+V+C+[M] 第2文型 complement
      3. 3 S+V+O+[M] 第3文型 object
      4. 4 S+V+DO+IO 第4文型 direct object, indirect object
      5. 5 S+V+O+C 第5文型
      6. 6 S+be p.p. +X 受動態  past participle, passive voice
        1. 6-1 S+be p.p.
        2. 6-2 S+be p.p. + O
        3. 6-3 S+be p.p. + C
    2. Chapter 2 Sentence patterns in American style
      1. 1 NP1 + V-be + ADV/TP
      2. 2 NP1 + V-be + ADJ 第2文型 ADJ = adjective 形容詞
      3. 3 NP1 + V-be + NP1 第2文型
      4. 4 NP1 + LV + ADJ 第2文型 LV = linking verb 連結動詞
      5. 5 NP1 + LV + NP1
      6. 6 NP1 + V-int 第1文型 V-int = intransitive verb 自動詞
      7. 7 NP1 + V-tr + NP2 第3文型 V-tr = transitive verb 他動詞
      8. 8 NP1 + V-tr + NP2 + NP3 第4文型
      9. 9 NP1 + V-tr + NP2 + ADJ 第5文型
      10. 10 NP1 + V-tr + NP2 + NP2 第5文型
    3. Chapter 3 Subject “S”+V+X+X
      1. 1 Subject = noun
      2. 2 Subject = pronoun
      3. 3 Subject = to-infinitive
      4. 4 it (S) … to-infinitive
      5. 5 it(S) … for … to-infinitive
      6. 6 Subject = ~ing 動名詞 gerund
      7. 7 it(S) … ~ing
    4. Chapter 4 Object S+V+”O”+X
      1. 1 Object = noun
      2. 2 Object = pronoun
      3. 3 Object = to-infinitive
      4. 4 Object = interrogative + to-infinitive 疑問詞+to不定詞
      5. 5 it(O) … [for…] to-infinitive
      6. 6 Object = ~ing
    5. Chapter 5 Complement S+V+”C”+X
      1. 1 S+V+noun phase / adjectival phrase 名詞句/形容詞句
      2. 2 S+V+ to-infinitive
      3. 3 S+V+ ~ing gerund
      4. 4 S+V+ participle~ing / p.p.
        1. 4-1 S+V+ ~ing (present participle) 現在分詞
        2. 4-2 S+V+ p.p. (past participle) 過去分詞
    6. Chapter 6 Complement S+V+O+”C”
      1. 1 S+V+O+noun phrase / adjectival phrase
      2. 2 S+V+O+ to-infinitive
      3. 3 S+V+O+ bare infinitive 原形不定詞
        1. 3-1 verbs of perception 知覚動詞
        2. 3-2 causative verb 使役動詞
      4. 4 S+V+O+ ~ing (present participle)
      5. 5 S+V+O+ p.p. (past participle)
    7. Chapter 7 Verbs/auxiliary verb 助動詞
      1. 1 S+ phrasal verb +X+X 動詞句
      2. 2 S+V+O+ as/for…
      3. 3 S+V+O+ preposition 前置詞
      4. 4 S+ auxiliary verb +V
      5. 5 S+ auxiliary verb + have +p.p.
    8. Chapter 8 Adjectival modifier noun+[M] 形容詞的修飾語句
      1. 1 noun + adjectival phrase 名詞+形容詞(句)
      2. 2 noun + to-infinitive
      3. 3 noun + ~ing (present participle)
      4. 4 noun + p.p. (past participle)
    9. Chapter 9 Adverbial modifier V+ adjectival /adverbial phrase +[M]
      1. 1 [M]= adverbial phrase
      2. 2 [M]= preposition + noun
      3. 3 [M]= whole sentence modifier phrase 文全体を修飾する副詞
      4. 4 [M]= adverbial use to-infinitive
      5. 5 to-infinitive that modify adjective
      6. 6 participial construction 分詞構文
        1. 6-1 ~ ing…, S+V+X+X
        2. 6-2 S+V+X+X, ~ing …
        3. 6-3 p.p. / adjective / noun being/having been の省略ゆえ
        4. 6-4 S’+ ~ing / p.p. … 意味上の主語
        5. 6-5 with + noun + ~ing / p.p. …
      7. 7 preposition + ~ing gerund 動名詞
      8. 8 preposition + noun + ~ing gerund 動名詞
  2. PART2: {S+V+X+X[S’+V’+X’+X’]}
    1. Chapter 1 noun clause {[S’+V’+X’+X’]+V+X+X]} 名詞節
      1. 1 Subject = That …
      2. 2 it(S) …. that ….
      3. 3 Subject = wh-interrogative … 疑問詞
      4. 4 Subject = what (relative pronoun) 関係代名詞
      5. 5 Subject = whoever[whatever] … concession 譲歩
      6. 6 it(S) …. noun clause …
    2. Chapter 2 noun clause {S+V+[S’+V’+X’+X’]} 名詞節
      1. 1 S+V+ that … 第3文型
      2. 2 Object = that …. should / infinitive 原形
      3. 3 S+V+O+ that … 第4文型
      4. 4 S+V+ it (…) + that …
      5. 5 S+V+ if / whether … 第3文型
      6. 6 S+V+O+ if / whether … 第4文型
      7. 7 Object = wh-interrogative … wh-疑問詞 -> 名詞節
      8. 8 Object = what (relative pronoun)
      9. 9 S+ be + that … 第2文型
      10. 10 S+ be + wh-interrogative …
      11. 11 S+ be + what (relative pronoun)
      12. 12 S+V+O+ what (relative pronoun) …
      13. 13 S+V+O+ as …
      14. 14 S+ be + wh-interrogative
      15. 15 S + be + adjective / p.p. + that …
      16. 16 it seems that …
      17. 17 it happens that …
      18. 18 it is …. +that … emphatic construction 強調構文
  3. PART3: {[S+V+X+X] + [S’+V’+X’+X’]}
    1. Chapter 1 relative modification {S+[S’+V’+X’+X’]+V+X+X}
      1. 1 noun + who …
      2. 2 noun + whose / whom …
      3. 3 noun + which …
      4. 4 those … who / which …
      5. 5 noun + what (relative pronoun) ….
      6. 6 Omitting relative pronouns
      7. 7 relative pronoun + preposition
      8. 8 preposition + relative pronoun
      9. 9 Relative pronoun clause containing more than two clauses
      10. 10 such …. as …. / the same (….) as …. etc.
      11. 11 noun + where/when ….
      12. 12 noun + why ….; the way ….
    2. Chapter 2 comparison; adjective / adverb + [S’+V’+X’*X’]
      1. 1 as[so] adjective as …..
      2. 2 as[so] adverb as …..
      3. 3 as …. as possible; as …. as any …
      4. 4 ~ times as …. as ….
      5. 5 as many (as …); as much (as …)
      6. 6 not as[so] …. as …
      7. 7 as good as …; as well as …
      8. 8 comparative …. than ….
      9. 9 comparative and comparative
      10. 10 the + comparative
      11. 11 comparative …. than any other ….
      12. 12 negative word + comparative + than ….
      13. 13 no…. + comparative + than ….
      14. 14 Idiomatic expressions including comparative degree
      15. 15 (the+) the superlative degree
    3. Chapter 3 Adverbial clause, temporal, reason; V+[S’+V’+X’+X’]
      1. 1 when/while/where ….
      2. 2 before/after/till ….
      3. 3 as soon as [the moment] ….
      4. 4 since/because ….
      5. 5 as ….
      6. 6 every time / by the time ….
    4. Chapter 4 Adverbial clause, condition, supposition, concession; V+[S’+V’+X’+X’]
      1. 1 if [even if] ….
      2. 2 unless/once/in case ….
      3. 3 as[so] long as / as[so] far as ….
      4. 4 subjunctive past 仮定法過去;現在の事実に反する仮定
      5. 5 subjunctive past perfect
      6. 6 subjunctive future 未来に対する仮定
      7. 7 subjunctive past perfect + past
      8. 8 subjunctive: I wish ….; as if ….
      9. 9 various expressions including subjunctive
      10. 10 though [even though] ….
      11. 11 however [no matter how] ….
    5. Chapter 5 Adverbial clause, order consecutive; V+[S’+V’+X’+X’]
      1. 1 so …. can~; so that …. may~, etc.
      2. 2 lest …. should~; for fear …., etc.
      3. 3 so …. that ….
      4. 4 such(….)that ….
      5. 5 rather than ….; other than ….
      6. 6 in that ….; with the result that ….
  4. PART4: [S+V+X+X] + [S+V+X+X]
    1. Chapter 1 Connecting sentences and clauses [S+V+X+X] + [S’+V’+X’+X’]
      1. 1 …., who …. Unrestricted usage of relative pronouns 関係代名詞の非制限用法
      2. 2 …., which ….
      3. 3 …., in which ….
      4. 4 …., some of which ….
      5. 5 …., where / when ….
      6. 6 …., while …. / …., till ….
    2. Chapter 2 Connecting sentences and sentences [S+V+X+X] + [S+V+X+X]
      1. 1 …. and ….
      2. 2 sometimes …., sometimes ….
      3. 3 …. or[not] ….
      4. 4 ……. but …. / …. so (that) ….
      5. 5 not …. but ….
      6. 6 not only …. but also ….
  5. PART5: Others
    1. Chapter 1 Inverted syntax
      1. 1 there + V + S …. / so + V + S
      2. 2 negative phrase + V + S ….
      3. 3 adverbial + V + S …. 副詞句
      4. 4 C+V+S; O+S+V
    2. Chapter 2 apposition, parenthesis noun + that ….
      1. 1 apposition: pronoun and noun
      2. 2 apposition: noun and noun phrase
      3. 3 parenthesis: adverbial
      4. 4 parenthesis: relative
    3. Chapter 3 common, ellipsis
      1. 1 S (V+V) X; S (VX + VX)
      2. 2 (adjective + adjective) noun
      3. 3 (preposition + preposition) noun
      4. 4 ellipsis

PART1: S+V+X+X

Chapter 1 Sentence structures in Japanese style

1 S+V+[M]+[M] 第1文型 subject, verb, modifier

David walks to school every day.

2 S+V+C+[M] 第2文型 complement

They remained good friends all their lives.

3 S+V+O+[M] 第3文型 object

I caught trout by the dozen in that reservoir yesterday. 貯水池

4 S+V+DO+IO 第4文型 direct object, indirect object

The police asked him many questions about the case.

5 S+V+O+C 第5文型

They named their son Stephan after his grandfather.

6 S+be p.p. +X 受動態  past participle, passive voice

6-1 S+be p.p.

Mr. Bond is known to the villagers as an honest man.

The villagers know Mr. Bond as an honest man. 第3文型

6-2 S+be p.p. + O

Many tales of his wonderings were told to us.

He told us many tales of his wonderings. 第4文型

We were told many tales of his wonderings.

6-3 S+be p.p. + C

Jason was elected chairman of the committee.

They elected Jason chairman of the committee. 第5文型

Chapter 2 Sentence patterns in American style

1 NP1 + V-be + ADV/TP

第1文型 NP = noun phrase 名詞句 V-be = verb of being ADV/TP = adverbial of time or place 副詞的な

My friends are here.

The verb of being is followed by an adverb indicating where or when.

My friends are at the library.

The adverbial indicating where or when may be a prepositional phrase.

2 NP1 + V-be + ADJ 第2文型 ADJ = adjective 形容詞

His clear tenor voice was quite lovely.

The verb of being is followed by an adjective that functions as the subjective complement.

The supervisor was in a good moody today.

The adjectival functioning as the subjective complement may be a prepositional phrase

3 NP1 + V-be + NP1 第2文型

Mr. James has been a teacher for forty years.

The verb of being is followed by a noun that functions as the subjective complement.

4 NP1 + LV + ADJ 第2文型 LV = linking verb 連結動詞

The cake on the table looks delicious.

The linking verb is followed by an adjective functioning as a subjective complement.

5 NP1 + LV + NP1

At a very early age, Joan became a Buddhist.

The linking verb is followed by a noun functioning as a subjective complement.

6 NP1 + V-int 第1文型 V-int = intransitive verb 自動詞

In a few weeks my cousin will arrive.

The action verb takes no direct object.

In a few weeks my cousin will arrive with my uncle.

Even if the action verb is followed by a prepositional phrase, the verb is still intransitive as long as it does not take a direct object.

7 NP1 + V-tr + NP2 第3文型 V-tr = transitive verb 他動詞

The archer shot an arrow into the target.

The action verb is followed by a direct object.

8 NP1 + V-tr + NP2 + NP3 第4文型

Smithers gave the employees a raise.

The action verb is followed by an indirect object and then a direct object.

9 NP1 + V-tr + NP2 + ADJ 第5文型

The jury found the defendant guilty.

The action verb is followed by a direct object. The direct object is followed by an adjective functioning as an objective complement.

10 NP1 + V-tr + NP2 + NP2 第5文型

Most people consider Jacobsen a loyal friend.

The action verb is followed by a direct object. The direct object is followed by a noun functioning as an objective complement.

Chapter 3 Subject “S”+V+X+X

1 Subject = noun

Her warm smile made me happy all day long.

無生物主語

2 Subject = pronoun

It’s fine now but this morning it was raining.

3 Subject = to-infinitive

To tell him directly will only cause an argument.

4 it (S) … to-infinitive

It will be a pleasure to have dinner with her.

5 it(S) … for … to-infinitive

It is a shame for them to do such things. 意味上の主語 a sense subject

6 Subject = ~ing 動名詞 gerund

Learning a foreign language is difficult.

7 it(S) … ~ing

It’s no use calling him now. He’s out.

Chapter 4 Object S+V+”O”+X

1 Object = noun

Have you ever heard such a ridiculous wedding speech?

2 Object = pronoun

How do you like it here?

3 Object = to-infinitive

Remember to post this letter, will you?

4 Object = interrogative + to-infinitive 疑問詞+to不定詞

Can you tell me how to get to the station, please?

5 it(O) … [for…] to-infinitive

Paul found it easy to settle down in his new environment. S+V+it(O)+C+to~
The doctor thought it best for me to have a few days off work. S+V+it(O)+C+for…+to~

6 Object = ~ing

I really enjoy going to discos.

Chapter 5 Complement S+V+”C”+X

1 S+V+noun phase / adjectival phrase 名詞句/形容詞句

John proved a trustworthy friend at all times.
Sylvester is tall, handsome and charming.

2 S+V+ to-infinitive

To study a foreign language is to learn about another cultures.
This seems to be particularly wise advise.
The question is which one to choose.

3 S+V+ ~ing gerund

Seeing is believing.

4 S+V+ participle~ing / p.p.

4-1 S+V+ ~ing (present participle) 現在分詞

He remained lying on the bed.

4-2 S+V+ p.p. (past participle) 過去分詞

At first he seemed satisfied with the result.

Chapter 6 Complement S+V+O+”C”

1 S+V+O+noun phrase / adjectival phrase

They made John head of their group.
I found him asleep on the sofa.
His rude remarks left me in a very bad mood.

2 S+V+O+ to-infinitive

My teacher told me to prepare the material before the class.

3 S+V+O+ bare infinitive 原形不定詞

3-1 verbs of perception 知覚動詞

I saw the cat leap over the wall.

3-2 causative verb 使役動詞

I will have him wait for me.

4 S+V+O+ ~ing (present participle)

Alison kept me waiting forty minutes in the rain.

5 S+V+O+ p.p. (past participle)

I want this work finished by 6:00 p.m.

Chapter 7 Verbs/auxiliary verb 助動詞

1 S+ phrasal verb +X+X 動詞句

He put on his best Sunday clothes.

2 S+V+O+ as/for…

I’ve always thought of music as the best international language. O+ as… -> S’+V’
We often take the efforts of our parents for granted. O+ for… -> S’+V’
take ~ for granted ~が認められているものと考える/~は当然だと考える

3 S+V+O+ preposition 前置詞

This photo reminds me of my life in the United States.

4 S+ auxiliary verb +V

Ian cannot sing but he does whistle very well.

5 S+ auxiliary verb + have +p.p.

Tom cannot have built the cottage all by himself. ~したはずがない 現在から過去のことについて推量や判断

Chapter 8 Adjectival modifier noun+[M] 形容詞的修飾語句

1 noun + adjectival phrase 名詞+形容詞(句)

He had nothing polite about him.
A teacher without students is like a fish out of water.
The girl had grown up in an atmosphere unfavorable to mental development.

2 noun + to-infinitive

I have no time to waste on your complaints.

3 noun + ~ing (present participle)

The load running beside the canal leads directly to my mother’s house.

4 noun + p.p. (past participle)

The agreement signed by both sides was broken after a further dispute.

Chapter 9 Adverbial modifier V+ adjectival /adverbial phrase +[M]

1 [M]= adverbial phrase

The canal ran north and south.

2 [M]= preposition + noun

In either case the answer is the same.

3 [M]= whole sentence modifier phrase 文全体を修飾する副詞

Luckily I had a spare tyre and was able to replace the punctured one.

4 [M]= adverbial use to-infinitive

I have to study very hard to keep up with the other students.

5 to-infinitive that modify adjective

The first two lines of this poem are quite easy to memorize.

6 participial construction 分詞構文

6-1 ~ ing…, S+V+X+X

Turning away from her, he looked at me.

6-2 S+V+X+X, ~ing …

He stayed at home, watching TV and caring for the plants in the garden.

6-3 p.p. / adjective / noun being/having been の省略ゆえ

Seen from a distance, the building looks quite new.
Hard of hearing, he always wears a hearing aid.
A slow learner at the best of times, I made little progress in my German.

6-4 S’+ ~ing / p.p. … 意味上の主語

The fog lifting slowly, we were at last able to see the beautiful scenery.
The job finished, we all had a cup of tea.

6-5 with + noun + ~ing / p.p. …

With no defenders trying to tackle him, the attacker scored an easy goal.
He was sleeping in the armchair with his hands clasped loosely in his lap.

7 preposition + ~ing gerund 動名詞

On entering the room, I immediately became aware of a strange aroma.

8 preposition + noun + ~ing gerund 動名詞

She complained about her husband spending so much money on gambling.

PART2: {S+V+X+X[S’+V’+X’+X’]}

Chapter 1 noun clause {[S’+V’+X’+X’]+V+X+X]} 名詞節

1 Subject = That …

That I have more friends than he does makes him jealous.

2 it(S) …. that ….

It’s not surprised that he has few friends; he’s so rude.

3 Subject = wh-interrogative … 疑問詞

Whether it was an accident or intentional will never be known.
Who will go there to ask him about it is not yet decided.
When he first had the idea is not clear.

4 Subject = what (relative pronoun) 関係代名詞

What is important is to keep this in mind.
What I liked best was the friendliness of the people there.

5 Subject = whoever[whatever] … concession 譲歩

Whoever needs medical treatment should be given it free by the state.
Whatever he says can be realized upon.

6 it(S) …. noun clause …

It is not clear whether he understand the massage properly or not.
It doesn’t matter which bus you get; they all pass my house.

Chapter 2 noun clause {S+V+[S’+V’+X’+X’]} 名詞節

1 S+V+ that … 第3文型

We now know that pollution knows no boundaries.
He said he would give his son a present every other day; he never realized this would spoil the child. 省略 ellipsis

2 Object = that …. should / infinitive 原形

I suggested that we (should) forget the stupid homework and go down to the river for a swim.
提案 suggest, propose

They insisted that the plan (should) be put into practice straight away.
主張 insist

B Company demanded that Mr. A write a letter stating that he repented his action and promising not to refuse overtime again.
要求 demand, require

命令 order, command

3 S+V+O+ that … 第4文型

His father told everyone that Eric had been killed in action.

4 S+V+ it (…) + that …

I take it that you know each other very well.
I took it for granted that you would agree.
Jim will see to it that the room is ready on time for the party. …であるようにする

5 S+V+ if / whether … 第3文型

He wondered if the wind had blown the window open.

6 S+V+O+ if / whether … 第4文型

She asked me whether I would be able to come or not.

7 Object = wh-interrogative … wh-疑問詞 -> 名詞節

Go and see who it is.
One can never tell from where help may come. 前置詞+疑問詞

8 Object = what (relative pronoun)

I just did what I wanted.

9 S+ be + that … 第2文型

The trouble is that we are short of money.

10 S+ be + wh-interrogative …

The question is whether he will come or not.
The important thing is how we should do it.

11 S+ be + what (relative pronoun)

The results are what we expected.
Books are to the mind what food is to the body.
A is to B what C is to D AのBに対する関係は、CのDに対する関係と同じである

12 S+V+O+ what (relative pronoun) …

His unhappy home life has made him what he is.
I have no idea what he means.

13 S+V+O+ as …

Leave this equipment as it is for the moment.

14 S+ be + wh-interrogative

That is why I don’t care for the sound of rain even today.

15 S + be + adjective / p.p. + that …

Are you sure (that) you did your best?
I am convinced that he will visit us again.

16 it seems that …

He just bought a new house. It seems that he won the lottery.
He looks really gloomy. It must be that he failed the exam.

17 it happens that …

It happens that Jane and I have the same birthday.

18 it is …. +that … emphatic construction 強調構文

It was this cheerful spirit and untiring devotion to work that made him a great inventor. It+be+S+that+V+O+C

It is the last five miles of a marathon race that I find most demanding.
It+be+C+that+S+V+C

It was late at night that the ghost first appeared.
It+be+adverb+that+S+V

It was not until he was 14 that he showed his mathematical talents.
How is it that we didn’t see each other when we were so close?
疑問詞の強調

PART3: {[S+V+X+X] + [S’+V’+X’+X’]}

Chapter 1 relative modification {S+[S’+V’+X’+X’]+V+X+X}

1 noun + who …

That man standing by the bus stop is the one who stole my handbag last week.

2 noun + whose / whom …

He is a manager whose powers of leadership leave a lot to be desired.
Mr. Williams doesn’t hire a man whom he doesn’t trust.

3 noun + which …

That’s the cookery book which my mother often uses to help plan our meals. 第3文型
The wallet which my father gave me last night contained a great deal of money. 第4文型
Patience is just one of the qualities which I find wanting in his character. 第5文型

4 those … who / which …

Those who were against the proposal did not attend the meeting.
Those dishes which do not prove popular will be cut from the menu.

5 noun + what (relative pronoun) ….

He is one of the bravest sailors that have ever lived.

6 Omitting relative pronouns

All ^ we needed was drinking water. objective case 目的格
My early training made me the person ^ I am today. nominative case 主格

7 relative pronoun + preposition

He is a man whom you can rely on to help you in an emergency.

8 preposition + relative pronoun

There is a certain woman about whom I am always hearing good things.

9 Relative pronoun clause containing more than two clauses

Jane is the only girl that I know can speak Spanish. Linkage pronoun clause 連鎖関係代名詞節
Jane is the only girl that I know who can speak Spanish. Double restriction 二重限定

10 such …. as …. / the same (….) as …. etc.

Give your children such books as are instructive as well as interesting.
You’d made the same mistake as you made before.

11 noun + where/when ….

He went back to the coffee shop where he thought he had left his key.
There was a time when they were in love with each other.

12 noun + why ….; the way ….

I tried to explain to him the reason why I had been so late for the appointment.
You should learn the way we do things round here. omitting how

Chapter 2 comparison; adjective / adverb + [S’+V’+X’*X’]

1 as[so] adjective as …..

You are as good at sports as I am.

2 as[so] adverb as …..

Companies in Japan are competing as vigorously with each other as with the world.
As for aggressiveness, women possess as much of this quality as men do.

3 as …. as possible; as …. as any …

Anyway, you should go to the dentist as soon as possible.
The enjoyment of science is as important as anything else.
Here is as lovely a face as I have ever seen.

4 ~ times as …. as ….

His house is three times as big as my house.
I’m eighteen. You are as old again as I am. 2倍

5 as many (as …); as much (as …)

I sometimes have as many as two hundred letters to answer in one day.
I can take as much as three days to reach the next town on foot.
We had three punctured tires in as many miles on that awful road.

6 not as[so] …. as …

The mountain is not as difficult to climb as it might appear.
I have never met so gracious a man as that in all my life.
Professor Jones is not so much a teacher as a poet.

7 as good as …; as well as …

My car is as well as new. ~も同然
The books as well as the furniture are for sale. ~ばかりか~まで
You might as well advise me to give up my fortune as my argument. ~するなら~してもよいだろうに

8 comparative …. than ….

In that year, more boys than girls were born.
We are better off now than we were twenty years ago.
Battery calculators occupy less space than their predecessors. 先任者

9 comparative and comparative

He became more and more irritable every day.
Shop assistants take less and less care about being polite to consumers.

10 the + comparative

I feel the better for my afternoon walk. その分だけいっそう~
The more I tried to lose weight, the more weight I put on.

11 comparative …. than any other ….

After the tragic accident, that particular space fight was postponed longer than any other.
This organization is in more need of funds than ever.

12 negative word + comparative + than ….

Nothing is more important than good health.
I have never known twin brothers less alike in character.

13 no…. + comparative + than ….

It is no bigger than a thumb.

14 Idiomatic expressions including comparative degree

Mr. Johnson will not allow you to meet his daughter any more.
I have more or less recovered from my stomach problems. = somewhat いくらか、多少とも
She is a difficult woman to talk to, still more to live with.

15 (the+) the superlative degree

The cleverest man is not always the best educated.
This is the loveliest dog I have ever seen.
Speaking in public is most people’s least favorite activity.

Chapter 3 Adverbial clause, temporal, reason; V+[S’+V’+X’+X’]

1 when/while/where ….

Mathematics is not so hard when you master the basic rules.
While you were away you had a phone call from Mr. Jones.
Where there is no law there is no freedom.

2 before/after/till ….

The fancy restaurant had closed down before we moved into the town.
I called the fire brigade immediately after I saw the smoke and flames.
Don’t come down for breakfast until you feel like it.

3 as soon as [the moment] ….

I ran for a policeman as soon as the robber left the post office.
The moment I heard the bell, I went and greeted our guests at the door.
No sooner had we sat down after waving them goodbye than the doorbell rang. They had forgotten their luggage.
Immediately an intruder is detected the alarm rings at the police station. = instantly, directly

4 since/because ….

Emily has been playing the piano since she was three years old.
We always take that route to school since it is the quickest way.
He needn’t have brought his car because we are all going to go in the minibus.

5 as ….

All the way he whistled as he walked. 時;~ながら
As the value of the yen increases, more tourists visit the U.S.A. 比例;~するにつれて
As the car would not start, we had to call for a taxi. 理由;~だから
I want you to treat these children as you do your own. 様態;~のように

6 every time / by the time ….

Every time she argues with him, he wonders why they ever got married.
I will have traveled around the world by the time I next meet you.
Now that all her daughters are safely married, she is free from all anxiety.

Chapter 4 Adverbial clause, condition, supposition, concession; V+[S’+V’+X’+X’]

1 if [even if] ….

If each of you takes two biscuits, everyone will get the same.
If he is satisfied with his salary, then why did he join the strike?
He’ll go through with it even if it’s too late. たとえ~としても

2 unless/once/in case ….

Unless I am mistaken, this is the oldest church in the country.
Once you have driven a Rolls Royce, you will always dream of owning one yourself.
In case I forget, please remind me.

3 as[so] long as / as[so] far as ….

As long as you are going to live here, you will do your share of the housework.
Mrs. Raymond is in good spirits as far as I know.

4 subjunctive past 仮定法過去;現在の事実に反する仮定

If I were you, I would spend some time trying to persuade her.
If she had a job, she could pay back the money she borrowed.
If it were not for his family, he could give up the position.

5 subjunctive past perfect

If it had not rained, we would have had a good time. 仮定法過去完了;過去の事実に反する仮定

6 subjunctive future 未来に対する仮定

If it should rain on the way, some of them might die.
If I were to find fault with you, it would be that you are not always on time.

7 subjunctive past perfect + past

If he had received three more votes in the last election, he would be our present chairman.
Could any of us make better estimate of the moon’s size if we had not read what astronomers tell us about its diameter?

8 subjunctive: I wish ….; as if ….

If only I didn’t have to sit in this stuffy office!
I really wish I had more free time to do various things.
She walked straight past me as if she didn’t know who I was.

9 various expressions including subjunctive

Had I been at the party I would not have missed the chance to dance with Sarah.
Without your help we would have to give up the whole plan.
A route over the mountains would take much longer.

10 though [even though] ….

Though [Although] I had had a good night’s sleep, I still felt tired.
I still get stage fright, even though I have been acting professionally for thirty years. 舞台負け

11 however [no matter how] ….

However improbable an idea may seem, do not dismiss it as untrue.
No matter how much lettuce you eat, you will never get fat.
Whether you meant to do it or not, you must still pay for the damage you caused.

Chapter 5 Adverbial clause, order consecutive; V+[S’+V’+X’+X’]

1 so …. can~; so that …. may~, etc.

She want you to look after her children so she can have an evening out.
He drove the car a little faster than usual so that he could get home it got dark.
In order that the magazine might increase its circulation we decided to change the layout.

2 lest …. should~; for fear …., etc.

She ordered the milk and papers stopped lest some potential burglar should realize that they were on holiday.
I wrote down all he said for fear I should forget it.
Please take my umbrella in case it rains. The weather report might be wrong.

3 so …. that ….

The fog was so thick that he could hardly see through it.
He had never been so poor that he could not buy food.

4 such(….)that ….

It is such a complicated procedure that I cannot help making mistakes.
Her manners were such that you might imagine she had grown up with wild animals.

5 rather than ….; other than ….

They are politicians rather than statesmen.
I would rather be poor and honest than a rich criminal.
There is no way of reaching the island other than by boat.

6 in that ….; with the result that ….

The Japanese and Chinese languages are similar in that they both use kanji.
He often read books by candle light with the result that his eyesight gradually deteriorated.
Considering we were late starting out this morning, we’ve made very good time on this journey.

PART4: [S+V+X+X] + [S+V+X+X]

Chapter 1 Connecting sentences and clauses [S+V+X+X] + [S’+V’+X’+X’]

1 …., who …. Unrestricted usage of relative pronouns 関係代名詞の非制限用法

He has three sons, who all work in the same office.
Children, who learn quickly, should start school as early as possible.

2 …., which ….

His hair, which used to have some red on the top, is graying.

3 …., in which ….

This peninsula was then a rough country of marsh and forest, in which the farmers grazed their cattle and made their clearings.
Excitement is like a drug, of which more and more will come to be required.

4 …., some of which ….

There are only two vegetarian dishes on the menu, neither of which sounds very appetizing.
We could only eat half of the pizza, the other half of which was wastefully thrown away.

5 …., where / when ….

The team flew back to London airport, where a crowd of jubilant supporters were waiting.
The fire engine arrived at two thirty, when in was too late.

6 …., while …. / …., till ….

The severely wounded were carried on stretchers, while the slightly wounded by themselves.
That hungry child kept walking until finally he collapsed from exhaustion and malnutrition.
I was awake a long time before I remembered that my heart was broken.

Chapter 2 Connecting sentences and sentences [S+V+X+X] + [S+V+X+X]

1 …. and ….

Please shake hands and forget this foolish argument.
Turn left there and you’ll soon find it to your left.
Both Bill and Ben were entered for the egg and spoon race.

2 sometimes …., sometimes ….

Sometimes my mother shops in the open market and sometimes at the supermarket.
Some people are born kind and unselfish; others have to learn these qualities through hard experience.
It is one thing to say you would like to write a novel; it is quite another to actually sit down and write it.

3 …. or[not] ….

Eat up the last of the meat or I will have to throw it out.
Either he is dismissed from the firm forthwith or I am resigning.
Susan neither spoke nor wrote to me again.

4 ……. but …. / …. so (that) ….

It is true that learning a foreign language is difficult, but it is certainly worth the effort.
I have looked over my term paper, so there cannot be any mistakes.
Professor Smith is known as a fine scholar, for he has written at least a dozen books and countless articles.

5 not …. but ….

Our company does not discriminate but employs people regardless of their sex or race.
I will not go there to argue, but to agree.

6 not only …. but also ….

I have forgotten not only my raincoat but also my umbrella.
Keeping one’s desk tidy is not merely pleasing to the eye but essential for efficient working.

PART5: Others

Chapter 1 Inverted syntax

1 there + V + S …. / so + V + S

From that initial mistake there arose innumerable problems.
I was exhausted, and so was everyone else who had completed the marathon in those hot and humid conditions.
We didn’t care for the meals the hotel served, nor did we think much of the standard of service.

2 negative phrase + V + S ….

Neither do I want to go through an experience like that again.
Nowhere does lunch taste so good as it does on the top of a mountain.

3 adverbial + V + S …. 副詞句

Well did he deserve to win that medal after so much hard training.
Only in recent times has worldwide travel become commonplace.
In front of the building sat a large dog as if waiting for someone to come out.

4 C+V+S; O+S+V

Dark were the clouds and strong was the wind on that fateful day.
His original book I really enjoyed but the movie I found boring.
The government did not make public the results of their enquiry.

Chapter 2 apposition, parenthesis noun + that ….

1 apposition: pronoun and noun

Those pictures reminded me of Arizona, the state where I grew up.
Two passengers, an American and a Japanese, were killed in the accident.

2 apposition: noun and noun phrase

Democracy is based on the belief that we are created equal.
The idea occurred to him that if he did not succeed this time he was too old to have a second chance.
The question arose who should be chosen to investigate this scandal.

3 parenthesis: adverbial

I would like, first of all, to welcome our guests.
His new movie is little, if at all, better than his previous one.
Sometime in December 1985, I think, I first saw a UFO.

4 parenthesis: relative

Bill passed the exam and, what was more surprising, he was offered a scholarship.
I left home at 7:00 a.m. and then, as I usually do, stopped off at the coffee shop by the station for breakfast.

Chapter 3 common, ellipsis

1 S (V+V) X; S (VX + VX)

You have to put the plants in a warm place and water them regularly if you want them to grow well.
Henry speaks, reads and writes four languages.
The old man felt, and looked very sad when his son said good-by to him.

2 (adjective + adjective) noun

This was my first, and main, impression of the journey across the African Continent.
A richly, but not flashily, dressed lady came through the door.
Ken has the strength and the speed to be a top football player.

3 (preposition + preposition) noun

This house was designed by and for handicapped people.
Mrs. Denton’s opinions are similar to but not the same as Mr. Denton’s.
Robert has a deep interest in and broad knowledge of politics and the arts.

4 ellipsis

Students have lots of free time but ^ little money.
I had pasta, John ^ pizza and Susan ^ spaghetti.
It is easy to think you are in love when you really aren’t ^.
If ^ necessary, I can work all night to get this job done.

最終更新:2019/11/11

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