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auxiliary verbs 助動詞

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1.助動詞基礎

She can speak English.
She could speak English.
Can she speak English?
She cannot speak English.

Next week I will be able to give you more information.
I want to be able to play golf like Ryo Ishikawa!
I enjoy being able to play sports again.
You’ll have to get permission from your Mather.

2.MUST

I must get back home by midnight. My parents will be mad if I don’t. 義務
You mustn’t[must not] do that! You’ll lose all your data. 禁止
You must go see Tokyo Sky Tree. It’s amazing! 強いお勧め
The injury isn’t serious? You must be relieved. 強い確信
I had to call my parents every night. 過去形
That was one of their conditions for allowing me to go on holiday alone.

3.MAY

You may smoke only in the designated area. 許可
You may not take photographs inside the museum. 禁止
May all your dreams come true! 祈願
We may go skiing in Hokkaido this winter. 推量(50%)

He may be rich, but he is incredibly boring! かもしれないが
The dollar may well weaken further. 多分~だろう(80%)
They may just as well be married since they’ve been living together for years.
~してもいいな

4.WILL

You will feel much better tomorrow. 予測
Accidents will happen. 法則・習慣
My dad would take us fishing. 過去の習慣
I’ve left my wallet at home. – Don’t worry. I’ll lend you some money. 意志

5.CAN

Junko can speak English. 能力
You can borrow my racket, if you like. 許可
My boss can be so selfish at times. 潜在的な性質

You can be too careful when it comes to drugs. ~しすぎることはない
I cannot thank you enough. 十分~することはできない
She couldn’t help crying. ~せざるをえない
You know what his temper’s like. He cannot help himself.
I couldn’t but marvel at trapeze artists’ skill. ~せざるをえない

6.SHALL

You shall not steal. 法律
We shall all die. 確信
Shall I help you? ~しましょう
Shall we dance?
Let’s go to the party, shall we?

7.SHOULD

You’re always broke. You should be more careful with your money. 義務・アドバイス
Why should I apologize to him? なんで~
Where has Mary gone? – How should I know?
That should be no problem. 確信

You ought to[should] call the police. 助言・アドバイス
She ought to know the rules. She’s been working here long enough. 確信
Ought I to attend the meeting?
You ought not to attend the meeting.

I’m surprised that you should feel so upset. 感情・判断
I’m surprised that you feel so upset.
It’s strange that she should call us at 2 in the morning.
It’s only natural that students should lose concentration in this heat.

If the travel agent should phone, tell him I want to change the date of my flight. 条件と共に使われる低い確率と丁寧な雰囲気
If you should change your mind, do let me know.
Should you need to cancel, make sure you do so at least 24 hours before your arrival date? 倒置で丁寧

Should you fail your driving test, you can take it again within a month. 倒置で万が一

◆ need(必要とする)イギリス英語、現在形だけ、否定文と疑問文で使用

She need not[needn’t] put up with his outrageous behavior.
Need you really play the music so loud?

◆ dare(あえて~する)イギリス英語、過去形はdared、否定文と疑問文で使用

He dared not look me in the eye.
Dare you eat fried ants?

How dare you talk to me like that? よくもそんな口の利き方ができるな?
Slap me if you dare! 叩けるもんなら叩いてみろよ!
Don’t dare me! 俺を怒らせるなよ!

◆ 助動詞による文全体の強調

I know you don’t like him, but I WILL marry him, Dad!
We MUST finish this assignment by tomorrow, or the teacher will kill us!
Everyone is telling you that you never make the school baseball team, but you CAN make it!

I’m sorry, but I want to talk to the manager. – I AM the manager!
I wish I could be a good role model for my students, – Hey, you ARE a good role model!

I love him. -> I DO love him!
He loves me. -> He DOES love me!
I loved hi. -> I DID love him!

8.助動詞相当のフレーズ

You have to have your hair cut. 必要・必然
She has to be the culprit. 強い確信
You don’t have to like your teachers, but you mustn’t insult them. 必要がない
He’s got to go. (= He has to go.) イギリス英語

I’m able to speak 4 languages.
My grandad could fix any kind of machine. やれた
The washing machine is OK now. Grandad was able to fix it. 実際に~できた

You’d better call the ambulance!
You’d best not snitch on us, or we’ll beat you up.

There used to be a movie theater right here. 過去の習慣・状態
My grandfather would entertain us for hours with his magic tricks. 意志あり

07 助動詞- 英文法大全 - 英文法 英語 文法 表現 用法 英語学習
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