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comparison 比較

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この記事は約17分で読めます。

0.比較基礎

Jim is tall.
Jim is as tall as Lucy.
Jim is taller than Ken.
Jim is the tallest of the three.

1.同等レベルをあらわす

A. as-asの基本

Tom is as tall as Mary.
<- Tom is tall.
She now speaks as naturally as a native speaker.
<- She now speaks naturally.

Tom is as tall as me. 目的格
Tom is as tall as her.

Mary is a really kind and considerate young woman. 感情が乗ったas-as
She visits her grandmother as often as 3 times a week.
Talk about a strong drinker – my brother can drink as many as 10 pints of beer without getting drunk!

B. 限定語句と共に

She isn’t as attractive as Sarah. ~ほど…じゃない
= Sarah is more attractive than her.
He didn’t play as well as his opponent, so he lost.
I’m not so/as smart as Takeo.
He is almost as tall as his Dad now. もう、ほとんど
Why did he get the job rather than me? I’m just as experienced as him. 僕だって
This cake is not half as delicious as it looks. (見た目)の半分も
Facebook is more than twice as big as MySpace. Soon it may be three times as big! 2倍以上 もうすぐ3倍

C. as-asを使い切る

I have as many CDs as Ken.
She is not as good at skiing as me.
Eva didn’t perform as well in the exam as Tess.

Tom is as nice a person as Ken.
× as a nice person as Ken

I think reading a book is as exciting as going to Disneyland.
To write Japanese is not as easy as to speak Japanese.
On camp, I ate as well as at home.

My boss isn’t as decisive as he was a couple of years ago. 決断力
Dad is not as grumpy as he used to be. 気難しい
I don’t skip as many classes as you do! さぼる
Chris isn’t as old as he looks.

The situation is not as desperate as it may seem. 見た目ほど
The new vaccine is not as promising as we thought/expected/hoped.
You can stay as long as you’d like.

His first album sold over half a million copies, and we hope this second album will be just as popular (as that).
Hiromi plays the piano brilliantly, but her sister can play as well (as her).

The culture of Japan is as rich and beautiful as that of England.
Gary’s car isn’t as flashy as Mary’s. 派手

OK, keep calm. I’ll get there as fast as I can. できるだけ
I’m sorry I’m late. I got there as quickly as I could.
My boss needs this report as soon as possible.

I’m as happy as can be. 最高
Enjoy the moment – this is as good as it gets.

This example is as good as any, so let’s use it. どの~にも劣らず、ナンバーワン
Lazy? You must be joking! Charlie is as hardworking as any student in our class!

Ha ha! I see you are as witty as ever. 相変わらず

I’m not so much concerned about the money as about how much time it will take. not so much…as~ …よりはむしろ~

Mary wouldn’t so much as hurt a butterfly. not so much as… …さえしない
Talk to me? Ha! He wouldn’t so much as look at me!

Trust me, it’s as good as new! – Yeah, right! ほとんど…、…同然
If my parents find out, I’m as good as dead!

■規則変化

原級 比較級 最上級
1 音節
tall taller tallest
large larger largest 語尾が -e で終わる場合
big bigger biggest 子音字を重ねて -er, -est
rich richer richest 子音字が2つの場合
soon sooner soonest 長母音の場合

2音節
hap・py happier happiest 語尾が「子音字+y」の場合、y → -ier/-iest
pret・ty prettier prettiest
cler・er cleverer cleverest -er で終わる
sim・ple simpler simplest -le で終わる
nar・row narrower narrowest -ow で終わる
slow・ly more slowly most slowly 形容詞にlyを付けた副詞
early earlier earliest
friendly friendlier friendliest
lovely lovelier loveliest
fa・mous more famous most famous
a・fraid more afraid most afraid 接辞付きはmore, most a-, -ous, -ing, -ed, -ful

3音節以上
dif・fi・cult more difficult most difficult
beau・ti・ful more beautiful most beautiful
im・por・tant more important most important

■不規則変化

原級 比較級 最上級
good better best
well

bad worse worst
badly

many more most
much

little less least

far farther farthest
further furthest

old older oldest
elder eldest

My Dad may be the best businessman in Town, but he’s the worst father!
She can handle this situation better than anyone.
He took the TOEIC test again and did even worse than last time!
How much farther do we have to walk? 【物理的な距離】
How much further do we have to walk? △
For further information, please contact reception. 【比喩的な距離】
He is older than me.

We’re hoping for more bookings at our hotel this year.
Mom, I need more pocket money.
Lucy is more intelligent than Nancy.
Lucy is most intelligent of all.

2.比較級表現:「~より」

A. 比較級の基本

Follow me. This way is quicker.
Many people would like to have a better life.
Try swinging the bat more slowly.

Women live longer. 比較対象が明らかなもの
Social networking sites like Twitter are becoming more popular.

Slow down! I can’t keep up with you. – That’s because I’m fitter than you. 体力がある
How can I get a higher TOEIC score than her? She lived in the States for 5 years!
C’mon, kids! You can scream louder than that.

Do you have more sample other than those you’ve shown us already? ~以外の
In the end, I decided to repair my old bike rather than buy a new one. ~よりもむしろ、~ではなく
I’d rather go naked than wear fur.

This is superior to that. 優れている
inferior 劣った
Ken is senior to me in the firm.
junior

B. 限定語句と共に

Camembert is not tastier than Gruyere. ~より~ない
My kids are no naughtier than most other children. 全然・全く~ない やんちゃ
This perfume isn’t any more fragrant than the one I am using now. 少しも~ない 香りのよい

You said you felt sick. Are you feeling any better? 少しは良くなった?

My hair is a little [a bit] softer than before, so I like this conditioner. ちょっと
Today’s test was somewhat more difficult than last week’s. いくぶん
Fruit is much [a lot] cheaper in my country than in Japan. はるかに
Whisky is far stronger than beer.
My brother is even crazier than me! さらに

Sue is 3 years younger than me.
I need 3 more volunteers.

Don’t worry, you’ll get many more chances to meet a nice girl.
I have much more confidence than before.

Did you know that a woman’s hips are approximately one and a half bigger than a man’s?
This new operating system is 2 to 3 times faster than the old one.

C. 比較級を使い切る

It’s cheaper to eat at home than at a restaurant.
Doing something is always better than doing nothing.
It’s healthier to play sport than to watch it on TV.

He looks older than he actually is.
I’m more confident than I’ve ever been.
The meeting lasted longer than I expected.

It’s becoming harder and harder to get a job. ますます
Hey, your English is getting better and better.
The situation is becoming more and more serious.

The younger you are, the easier it is to learn. ~であればあるほど~
The more expensive the hotel, the worse the service.
The sooner you dump him, the happier you will be.
The more we have, the more we want.

I like her all the better because she is shy and modest. その分だけ 控え目
The fact that I simply ignored his rude comments made him all the more angry.

Which of these 2 lines is the shorter? 2者間で「~の方」
– Ha! They’re the same length!

John is taller than any other boy in his class. ほかのいかなる~よりも
Tokyo is bigger than any city in England.
John is taller than everybody/anybody else in his class.

She is more pretty than beautiful. ~というよりむしろ…
Getting a visa is more time-consuming than difficult.

That is no more a Rolex than this plastic toy watch! 全然違うよ
He is no more an artist than I am.
You, a detective? Ha! You’re no more a detective than my grandmother!
He’s no more fit to do this job than a monkey!
I could no more lie to you than fly to the moon.

He is no more intelligent than me. 普通の比較文

Lucy is less intelligent than Hanako.

I’m no less confident than before, just because I didn’t win. no less … than ~ ~に劣らず
He’s no less a man than you, just because he refuses to fight.

The earth is no more than a little star. ~にすぎない = only

There were no more than ten people present. 10人しか来なかった
There were not more than ten people present. 10人以下でした(10人を超えていない)

You must pay this fine not more than 12 days after the date written below. 12日以内

You got Chris to pay for a drink? That is no less than a miracle! まさに・<数量の大きさを強調して>~も
A house in that area would cost no less than $500,000.

We have to write a paper of not less than 5000 words. 5000ワード以上の

I’ve more or less made up my mind. 多かれ少なかれ・だいたい

I don’t love her any more. not~any more…(=no more) もはや~ない・これ以上~ない
I can’t take it any more. これ以上は耐えられない

I can’t wait any longer.

That was a really stupid thing to do. You should know better. もっと分別がある
His bags were stolen? But he should know better than to leave his stuff unattended.

She explained how to do it 3 or 4 times to me, but I’m still none the wiser. 〔だからといって〕少しも~というわけではない
Nonetheless, he shouldn’t have lost his temper like that.

3.最上級表現:「最も~」

A. 最上級を使った表現

Cheryl is the cleverest.
Oh, that’s the best idea.
Which engine runs the most efficiently?

Who stayed awake longest? 口語ではtheが省略されることも

The road is narrowest at this point. ある一つのモノの状態
This road is the narrowest in the whole town. 1つに決まる

I’m happiest when I’m surrounded by my family.
I’m the happiest guy in the world.

Well done. Your performance was most impressive. とても(=very impressive)
She kissed my cheek most tenderly.

Tom is the tallest of the three/of all. ~の中で
Tom is the tallest in his class.

Can you name the longest river in the world? 範囲
Your bar is definitely one of the liveliest in this city.
Your dog is the noisiest in the neighborhood.

She is the youngest of the three. 部分ー全体
This resort is the best of all.

B. 最上級を限定語句と共に

This is by far the best book we’ve written. 断然
This site has the very best free online games.
Her grades are excellent, but they are only the second best.

C. 最上級の応用型:「これまで」とのコンビネーション

This is the most moving film I’ve ever seen.
This is the most hair-raising roller-coaster ever created.

all-time best これまでで最高

The best players can sometimes lose. 最も優秀なプレイヤーでも 譲歩:最も~なモノでさえ
Even the most competent professionals make embarrassing mistakes.
The most patient teachers lose their cool once in a while. 時々

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