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conjunctions 接続詞

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0.接続詞全体

My brother played the guitar, and I sang. 等位接続

If you wait a few minutes, I’ll give you a ride. 従位接続
I’ll give you a ride if you wait a few minutes.

When I was sending a text massage, the teacher caught me.

1.等位接続

A. 順行の接続

I made a sandwich and I ate it quickly.
It started to pour down, and we got soaked to the skin.

Just pay a deposit, and you can take it home now.
Pick a fight with him, and you’ll regret it.

Jane and Nancy are best friends.

He rolled over and over. ゴロゴロ転がった
The list went on and on.
He ran and ran.

I didn’t use sunscreen, so I got burned.

Narumi spent 5 years in the States, hence her perfect English accent. 論理を追う
You didn’t come to the practice; therefore, you’re out of the team. それゆえに

They asked me to work extra hours and, on top of that, they docked my pay! 累加
さらに、その上に、加えて
in addition
moreover
furthermore

I like most Japanese food; for example, sushi, tempra, and soba. 例示

I learned a lot from my parents: honesty, loyalty, and curiosity. コロンの使用

I’m reading a book about Bushido, that is, the traditional code of the Japanese samurai. 明確化
つまり
NaCl stands for sodium chloride or … common salt.

in other words 他の言葉で言うと
that is to say つまり
to put it another way 他の言い方をすると
to be precise 正確に言うと

B. 逆行の接続

I like my new boyfriend but hate his sense of dress.
She never studied but always passed the tests easily.

Excuse me [sorry], but can you keep the noise down, please?

A: How about a nice tie for your husband?
B: But, I’m not married!

A: Just go up to her and ask her out. It’s simple.
B: Yes, but if she says no? 和らげてから

He is not just my friend but my soul mate.
This car is not only powerful but (also) eco-friendly.

not A but B AではなくB
not only A but (also) B AだけではなくBも

All but two of climbers made it to the top. 前置詞として
Look, I’m sure this is nothing but a phase your kid is going through.

I know you don’t want the flu injection. However it’s better to be safe than sorry. けれども、しかしながら
I don’t have a part-time job. Most of my mates, however, do have one.

Kelly was a criminal, yet many people admired him. けれども

You can pay in cash, or you can use a credit card.
Which color do you want, red or blue?
30 or 40 people attended the presentation.
Hurry up, or we’ll miss the train.
We’d better do exactly as he told us, or else we’ll be in deep water. さもないと

2.従位接続詞

A. 条件

If you wait a few minutes, I’ll give you a ride. if節は未来のことでも現在形が普通
I know I can win if I play the best.

If you say that again, I’ll go home. 標準的
If you say that again, I go home. 絶対帰るからね
If you say that again, I’m going home. 強い断定口調

I don’t care if you have no money. – I just like you! 譲歩
I don’t care even if you have no money.

I don’t know if Michelle received the package. 2択
He asked me if I have time for a drink.

If you don’t pay up, I go straight to the police. 脅迫
If you exercise more, you’ll feel much healthier. アドバイス
What if we went on a safari this summer? 意見・提案

I’ll accept the job, if and only if I’m allowed to do things my way. (if and) only if ~ ~である場合に限り

if only ~ もし~でさえあったなら
as if ~ あたかも~のように

Unless something unexpected happens, the plan will remain unchanged. ~しない限りは
I’d prefer not to go out tonight – unless you really want to.

I’ll be surprised if Zach doesn’t get chosen as captain.

Provided she can control her nerves, she has an excellent chance of winning. もし~なら

provided / providing (that) ~ ある条件が与えられれば(満たされれば)
on condition that ~ ~という条件で

Given the circumstances, a tie is a brilliant result. ~を考えると、~を考慮に入れれば、

Given (that) ~

I love you as long as I live. ~する限り
As long as you don’t do anything stupid, you’ll be fine.

Suppose she turns you down, what will you do? ~と仮定すると、~と考えると

suppose / supposing ~

Bring your umbrella with you just in case it rains. ~するといけないから
In case you need help, here’s my cell phone number.

I stuck very close to my big brother for fear that I should get lost. ~することを恐れて、 → ~しないように

Naoko tiptoed from her bedroom to the front door, lest her parents (should) hear her.
Lest we (should) forget.

I’ll answer them straight away, otherwise I’ll forget. そうでなければ

-wiseはway
clockwise 時計回りに
time-wise 時間的には
tax-wise 税金という点では

B. 理由

Because I didn’t practice, I made no progress.
As I didn’t practice, I made no progress.
Since I didn’t practice, I made no progress.
I didn’t practice, and I made no progress.
I didn’t practice, so I made no progress.

Why did you lie? – Because I was scared.
I’m getting fat. – That’s because you eat too much.

〇 I respect my parents because they work hard and take good care of us.
× I respect my parents. Because they work hard and take good care of us.

I went to bed very early, for I had had an exhausting day. フォーマルな書き言葉
Money is important in that we need it to survive.
He was lucky inasmuch as they didn’t fire him.

The match was delayed because of the terrible storm.
I’m proud of him because of his outstanding academic achievements.

We didn’t go out because it rained.
We didn’t go out because of the rain.

Due to train delays, many students were late for classes this morning.

I can’t take part in the exchange program owing to the cost.

The team’s success is due to the new manager. 【be動詞+due to】

The match was cancelled owing to snow. 【動詞+owing to】

I passed the test thanks to all your help.
My parents grounded me thanks to my stupid brother and his big mouth!

Schools were closed on account of the typhoon.

C. 目的

She stayed at work late so (that) she could complete the report.
I have to be strict in order that the students realize who is the boss!
I’ve organized the files such that each documents will be easy to find.

He took the course to get a better job.
He took the course in order to get a better job.
He took the course so as to get a better job.

They presented the project in such a way that only the positive aspects were seen.

in such a way that ~
in such a way (as to) ~

I know I shouldn’t smoke for the sake of my health but, … sake: 現在の事態を改善する
for God’s sake, stop arguing! お願いだから

D. 譲歩 ~ということはあるのだが、

Although/Thought he was injured, he carried on playing.
Colin is an excellent coach. He can be a bit aggressive, though. ~だけど~した
Even though they know they could get caught, many athletes use drugs. 強調

I treat my girlfriend like a queen, and still she’s not satisfied. ~にもかかわらず 変わらない・動かない

We didn’t make as much money as expected. All the same, it was a pretty successful event. ~にもかかわらず 全く同じ

Nevertheless, it’s a good idea to double-check. それにもかかわらず それによって少しも減ずるところなく

Despite the fact that we lost, we are satisfied with our overall performance. spite: 悪意
We played soccer despite [in spite of] the rain.
We lost despite [in spite of] our 100% effort.

despite the fact that
in spite of the fact that
in spite of ~

It may look easy, but it is really difficult to dance Samba.

However hard I tried, I couldn’t break the code.

No matter what I do, my parents never seem to be satisfied.

E. コントラスト

I support the Giants, while my girlfriend is a Hanshin Tigers’ fan.
The old system was fairly complicated, whereas the new system is very simple.

Dogs can easily be trained to do tricks. By contrast, it is very difficult to train cats. 対照的に

in contrast
by contrast

I hear the city is a bit dead. – On the contrary, it’s very vibrant with tons of things to do. 反対に

On the one hand she says I’m never there for her, and on the other hand she says 他方では
she needs more space. Go figure!

F. 時間への位置づけ

When I opened the overhead locker, a big bag fell on my head.
I get nervous when I’m about to board a plane.

While I was driving to work, I felt a strange sense of déjà vu. ~する間に
While he admitted he’d made some mistakes, he said he hadn’t broken the law.

I’ve felt much better since we had that chat. Thank you! ~から
Since it rained hard, we got wet.

I’ll just go to the bathroom before we leave. ~の前
I couldn’t move after I had spent 8 hours planting rice. ~の後
No, problem. I’ll look after the kids until you get back. ~まで
By the time she’s finished getting ready, the concert will be over! ~まで

I felt queasy as soon as I got into the boat. ~するとすぐ

No sooner had I turned out the light than the baby started crying. AするやいなやB

I had hardly / scarcely sat down when the phone rang.

Once she makes a few friends, she’ll be fine. いったん~すると

Now that we understand the causes of this problem, let us consider some solutions. 今は~なので

As I bent down to tie my laces, my back went out! 同時

G. 多様なas

I lost balance as I was trying to stand on my head. 【同時】
As the cost of air tickets has gone up so much, many people can no longer afford to travel. 【理由】
As the hurricane hit the town, everyone ran for their lives.

I had a great time when I was working in New York. asの同時性
The phone rang as I was going out the front door.
As the match was about to start, there was a power cut.
I found a \1000-note as I was cleaning the sofa.

As time passed, his condition got better and better. 比例関係
As the unemployment level rises, the crime rate also increases.

As your doctor, I have to advise you to quit smoking. 修飾する:~として
I regard my new job as a great challenge.
Do as I say, not as I do.
I paid my debts, as agreed.
As you know, it’s Tom’s birthday next week.

I can’t believe I got into this university. It’s like a dream! ~のような
We’re looking for someone exactly like you.
Fold the paper diagonally like this.

Like your parents, we teachers have a duty to be there for you. likeは類似、asはイコール
As your parents, we have a duty to be there for you.

32-1 接続詞の種類- 英文法大全 - 英文法 英語 文法 表現 用法 英語学習

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