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negation 否定

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この記事は約7分で読めます。

0.否定基礎

Most kids don’t like carrots.
This is not for sale.
Not me!

1.notは前から

A. 否定文の作り方

1) 助動詞あり 動詞は常に原形
I can’t play the piano.
You mustn’t cheat in the test.
I won’t let you down. ガッガリはさせない
2) 助動詞なし(do + not)
Most kids don’t like jazz.
He doesn’t speak English.
He didn’t erase his personal data.
3) be動詞
I’m not happy.
They weren’t sophisticated.

B. 語句を否定する

Who let the cat out of the bag? – Not me! 誰が秘密を洩らしたんだ
This apartment is not for rent. 賃貸用
He’ll win not because he’s the better player but because he’s stronger mentally.
I was fired for not being punctual.
I worked hard not to have credit card debt.

He didn’t try to win the match. 勝とうとしなかった
He tried not to win the match. 勝たないようにした

I didn’t open your email deliberately. わざと開いたんじゃない
I deliberately didn’t open your email. わざと開かなかった

I don’t have any friend [any money]. not + any : 全く~ない
× Anyone didn’t attend the meeting.
〇 Everyone didn’t attend the meeting.

We cannot not communicate. しないことはできない

2.「強い単語」とのコンビネーション

I don’t really like your new car. それほど好きじゃない 部分否定
I really don’t like your new car. 本当にキライなんだ
My girlfriend is not always on time. いつも時間通りに来るとは限らない 部分否定
My girlfriend is always not on time! いつも時間通りに来ない

That’s not necessarily true. 必ずしも本当ではない
You are not totally right. 完全に正しいわけじゃない
Not all the students handed in their paper.
Not many students flunked. 落第した学生はあまり多くない
I don’t like her very much. あまり好きじゃない

She is ugly.
She is not very beautiful.

That’s wrong.
That’s not exactly right.

Your son is stupid.
Your son is not the brightest student.

3.notのクセ

A. 「思う」文で前倒し

I don’t think it’s right.
I don’t believe we’re met.
I don’t expect that they’ll show up.

imagine 想像する
suppose ~と思う
seem 見える・思える

I fear that they will not accept our offer. 受け入れないと思う
× I don’t fear that they will accept our offer. 受け入れる事なんて怖くない

be afraid 恐れる
hope 望む

I think it’s not right. 正しくないと思う
I don’t think it’s right. 正しいとは思わない アタリを柔らかくする効果

A: I can’t believe they sacked Tom. クビになったなんて信じられない
B: Yeah, I don’t think it’s fair.
A: I know he made some mistakes.
B: Maybe. But I still think it’s NOT fair.

B. notを含んだ文に対する受け答え:notは勘定に入れない

Do you like your school uniform?
Yes, I do. 好きだよ
No, I don’t. 好きじゃないよ
Don’t you like your school uniform?
Yes, I do. 好きだよ
No, I don’t. 好きじゃないよ

C. notを含んだ文に対する受け答え:notを明示する

You’re not leaving me, right? – Of course not!
I didn’t go to work today. – Why not?

D. 文の代わりにnot

Did you manage to get tickets for tonight’s game? – I’m afraid not.
I’m afraid I did not manage to get tickets for tonight’s game.
Do you think it will rain tomorrow? – I hope not.
Have you finished your homework? – Not yet.
I’m afraid I’ve been wasting your time. – Not at all.
I should be able to fix it by tomorrow. If not, you’ll have to wait till Monday.

Do you mean we have to start again from scratch? – I’m afraid so.
Will they give you a loan? – I hope so.

One thing’s for sure, I will not give in without a fight. ~なしで…しない

The game is not over until the final whistle. ~まで…しない

Hey, these chocolates are not only for you but for your sister too! …だけではなく~も
The doctor told me not only to quit smoking but also to go on a diet.
He not only directed the movie but starred in it.
She is not only talented but confident – she’ll go a long way. 大物になるわよ

Look, he messed up not once but 3 times, so I had to fire him! …だけではなく~
My teachers don’t put me down but give me self-confidence.

cannot…too~
cannot help -ing
cannot but~

最終更新:2019/11/24

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