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past participles 過去分詞

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1.受動文とは?

The dog attacked the man.
The man was attacked by the dog.

The Egyptian pyramids were build over 4,500 years ago. 誰がやったのかわからない・言う必要がない
English is spoken worldwide.

The tremendous support I have received from all my family and friends 頭でっかちな文を避ける
has encouraged me.
I have been encouraged by the tremendous support I have received from all
my family and friends.

Our internet marketing company was founded by Tony Brown in 2002. 話題の中心をそらさない
Since that time, it has produced over 1000 custom web sites.

Tony Brown founded our internet marketing company in 2002.
Since that time, it has produced over 1000 custom web sites.

It is often said that English is a difficult language. 話に一般性をもたらす
It is said that there is a lot of match fixing in sumo.

2.受動文基礎

The politician was killed by a terrorist.
Many family problems are caused by bad communication.

I wanted to get some fruit, but the shop was closed. 状態
The shop was closed at 10:00 as usual. 行為

Ny son was born in 1999.

John was surprised.
pleased.
delighted.
satisfied.
disappointed.
annoyed.

These batteries charge quickly. 行為→性質へ
These juice cartons open easily.
Does your new car drive well?
Green peppers don’t peel easily.
Our books are selling well.

The well was deepened by 20 meters.
One of my co-workers was badly injured in a traffic accident.
French is spoken in Quebec.
I had ice cream covered with chocolate – yummy!
He is known to everybody in the town.
Kyoto is known for its beautiful temples.
A man is known by the company he keeps.

John was surprised by the result.
John was surprised at the result.
John was pleased with the result.

3.受動文のバリエーション

A. 授与をあらわす

Mary was given a trophy. ←They gave Mary a trophy. 授与型
A trophy was given to Mary.

B. 目的語説明の受動文

I think the guy was called Peter, but I can’t be sure.

I made my student clean the toilet.
My student was made to clean the toilet.

I saw Mary cross the street.
Mary was seen to cross the street.

C. to 不定詞と受動文のコンビネーション

I was asked to make a speech at my ex-student’s wedding.

It is said that Jericho is the oldest city in the world.

He’ll pay me back one day, I suppose. 心に置いた土台
Suppose you get fired, what will you do?
We are supposed to be there by 7.
Sorry, but you are not supposed to park here.

D. 句動詞の受動文

My kids have been brought up to respect their elders.
The match has been called off. 中止
The big event will be talked about for years.
Don’t warry. The tickets have already been paid for.

4.過去分詞で修飾

A. be動詞以外の説明型で用いる過去分詞

Your mom looked disgusted when she saw my tattoos!
They became frightened.
John got arrested for harassment.

B. 目的語修飾

Keep the door locked.
Would you like your fish grilled?
We found two windows smashed.
I thought I heard my name called.
It’s difficult to make myself heard over all this noise.
I got my car washed yesterday.

C. 過去分詞、その他の修飾

The man pictured in the newspaper article is my grandfather.
The things stolen from my room were not very valuable.

My daughter came home disappointed.
We arrived at our destination exhausted.
The funs left the stadium overjoyed.

mashed potatoes 過去分詞を前から→種類限定
boiled eggs
written English
spoken English

She I gone. She’ll never come back. ある状態から別の状態への移行
There are lots of leaves fallen from the trees.
Life can be tough for retired people.

Our situation is healthy, compared with other companies. 文修飾
This apartment is ideal for young couples, situated very close to lots of shops,
restaurants, and leisure facilities.

Surrounded by glorious white beaches, the private resort is perfect for a honeymoon. フォーマル、格調のために文修飾の過去分詞を前に
Founded in 1905, our company has been a global leader in this industry for more than
100 years.

× Bullied is a horrible experience.
→ To be bullied is a horrible experience.
→ Being bullied is a horrible experience.

× I don’t like bullied.
→ I don’t like to be bullied.
→ I don’t like being bullied.

09 態- 英文法大全 - 英文法 英語 文法 表現 用法 英語学習

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