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prepositions 前置詞

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この記事は約38分で読めます。

0.前置詞の感覚

This apple is on the refrigerator.
This apple is in the refrigerator.
This apple is behind the refrigerator.
This apple is by the refrigerator.

I woke up at 7.
My favorite band is playing at the Budokan next week.
I got these jeans at a really good price.
She is really good at English.

1.前置詞基礎

A. 前置詞の位置と働き

There’s an apple on the table.
Come and have some fun with us.

There are a lot of Brazilians in Japan. 前置詞+名詞
I can’t sleep at night.
The tropical depression is headed towards the Bahamas.
I can pick a lock with a paper clip.
All the kids in my class donated money to the Haiti Disaster Relief Fund.

behind-the-scenes negotiation 限定 前から 舞台裏の交渉
in-depth examination 深く掘り下げた説明
under-the-table dealings 裏取引
Behind-the-sofa is a good place to hide.

Our situation went from bad to worse.
He lived in Paris until quite recently.
The cat came out from under the sofa.
She insulted me by calling me a liar.
Your success depends on how you make decisions.
It’s a bit awkward to invite Helen to the party in that her ex is also coming.

Your cell phone is in your bag. 前置詞
Miniskirts is in this year. 形容詞 流行っている
Please drop in any time. 副詞→句動詞 立ち寄る

According to Mom, I have zero fashion sense! フレーズで前置詞の働き
The final was postponed because of rain.

〇句動詞

A. 句動詞全体で自動詞

He didn’t show up for the meeting.
My car broken down in the middle of the freeway.
All the students stood up when the Principal entered the classroom.

B. 句動詞全体で他動詞

I ran into an old friend of mine. バッタリ出会う
I’m looking for my car keys.
It’s wrong to pick up somebody. いじめる

C. 句動詞全体で他動詞(分離)

I think I’ll put the green sweater on.
Let’s put that decision off until our next meeting.
Put the box down next to the desk.

I’ll put the green sweater on.
I’ll put on the green sweater.

〇 I’ll put it on. 代名詞が目的語の時は分離はダメ

× I’ll put on it.

2.前置詞の選択

Unbelievable! Apples are selling at just \200 a kilo.
I bumped into Cathy at the bank this morning. バッタリ会う
Their flight is due to arrive at 10 a.m.
Mommy, look at my drawing.

They got married in a church.
Every classroom has a big clock on the front wall.

We had to changed planes at Heathrow Airport.
We enjoyed some last-minute shopping in Heathrow Airport.

We refueled at Naples. 燃料補給する

My Dad often sits in his favorite chair and watches TV all night.
My Dad usually sits on that chair.

My ball hit a tree and landed in the fairway. Lucky!
When I played golf in Thailand, there were monkeys on the fairway!

□基本前置詞

about まわり

I weigh about 58 kilos. 約・およそ
Midnight? Gosh, it’s about time we went home. そろそろ
He gave a talk about cats. ~について
He gave a talk on cats. 専門的な話をした
Quick! The train is about to leave. ~しそう
beat about the bush 遠回しに言う

above ~の上

There’s lots of banging coming from the apartment above.
Just one drink is enough to be above the legal imit.
Above all, relax and enjoy yourselves. とりわけ、何よりも

across 横切って

They swam across the river.
There’s a convenience store just across the street. 通りを渡って
I rode my motorbike across South America. 南アメリカ中
I came across my graduation album this morning. 偶然見つける
I ran across Terry in town today. バッタリ出会う
The economic crisis has hit businesses across the board. 全面的に

after ~の後

The police are after him. 追いかけている
Are you after anything in particular? 特に何かお探しですか?
How about going to karaoke after class?
Shibuya comes after Harajuku, right?
This is a painting after Picasso. 模倣
Can you look after my son while I’m away? 世話をする
We named our daughter after her grandmother. …を~にちなんで名づける
Do you take after your Mom or your Dad? 似ている
Rie asked after you at school today. I think she fancies you! inquire after : 尋ねる 気がある

against ~に対して

He tripped and hit his head against a desk.
He’s been against me from the first moment he saw me. 反抗・反対
Are you for or against the plan?
Save money against a rainy day? No way! I wanna spend it NOW! 備える

along ~に沿って

I took my dog for a walk along the beach.
There’s an excellent restaurant along this street.
You knew all along who was cyberbullying me, didn’t you? 最初からずっと
How are you getting along at your new school? やっていく、…と仲良くやっていく
I don’t get along very well with my parents.

among ~の中、~のあいだ

It’ll be tough to spot her among all these people. 見つける
Talk among yourselves until I get back. 君たちの間で
He talked about the present economic crisis, among other things. とりわけ
He is among the best golfers in the world. 最も~なモノのひとつ

around(round) ~のまわり

We sat around the kotatsu to keep warm.
We got back around midnight.
Here are some tips about how to get around in London. 動き回る
News gets around fast here. 広まる
Most kids know how to get around their parents! 避ける

at ~で、~に

I got ripped off at that restaurant.
I got my car at a really good price.
he was driving at 120kph when he crashed.
You become an adult at 20 in Japan.
I woke up at 7.
They all looked at the new students. ~を見る
They all laughed at the new students. ~を笑う
She is really good at English. ~が得意
bad at 悪い
terrible at ひどい
perfect at 完璧
She is not a genius at all. 全く~でない
The situation at present is hopeless. 現在
I didn’t like English at first, but now I love it. 最初は
At last, the baby fell asleep. 最後に、とうとう
Mari will get a C at best and, at worst, she’ll fail.
It’s not far – a 10-minute walk at most.
I watch at least 4 hours of TV a day.
at best せいぜい良くても
at most せいぜい多くても
at least 少なくとも
The doctor will see you one at a time.
Studying English is tough at times, but I still like it.
at a time 一度に
at times 時々
Hey, don’t all talk at once! 同時に
Come back at once! 直ぐに
Chameleons can change their color at will. 思いのままに

before ~の前

I often go jogging before breakfast.
Shin-Ochanomizu comes before Otemachi, right?
Ladies before gentlemen. 女性優先

Wait for me in front of the theater.
Students have their whole lives before them.
The police officer spoke before the entire school.

behind ~の後ろ

My cat loves to hide behind the curtains.
I have no idea what’s behind his change of attitude.
I’m always behind with my homework. 宿題やるの遅れる

between ~のあいだ

Let’s share the responsibilities between the six of us.

Look. There are 2 monkeys between the trees.
Look. There are 2 monkeys among the trees.

beyond ~を越えて

The ship disappeared beyond the horizon. 水平線の向こうに
My old school has changed beyond recognition. 見分けがつかない
beyond description 筆舌に尽くしがたい
beyond repair 直せない
beyond comprehension 理解できない
beyond doubt 全く疑いがない

by ~によって、近く

I know a great coffee shop by my office.
I just sat watching the people passing by. そばを通る
near by そばに
close by そばに
I go to school by bicycle. 手段・方法・程度
by car 無冠詞
by bus
by letter
by email
Come by the back road – it’s quicker.
Why do you always judge a girl by her looks?
Pencils are sold by the dozen.
The brilliant young Kenyan runner won the Honolulu marathon by a large margin.
Ken was attacked by the dog. 受動態
If I’m not back by 10 p.m., my parents will kill me! 期限 デッドライン
I’ve got my club activity until 6:30. 状態

Time goes by. 時は過ぎゆく
How did you come by these documents? 手に入れる
I’ll drop by for a coffee tomorrow morning, OK? 立ち寄る
My best mates always stand by me. 味方になる
My best mates always stand by me. 1人で

My TOEIC score is improving little by little. 少しずつ
step by step 一歩ずつ
day by day 日ごとに
one by one 1つずつ

Look! Mami and Daisuke are walking side by side across the schoolyard. 隣り合って、協力して

This carpet was made by hand. 手渡しで
We got to the roof by means of a long ladder. ~によって
We went home by way of Singapore. ~を通って、経由で

I met Asami by chance in Harajuku. 偶然
I phoned my ex-girlfriend by mistake. 間違って
by accident わざとじゃないよ

during ~の間に

during the summer 夏の間に
during my lecture 私の講義の間に
I had a part-time job during the holidays, so now I’m rich!

I did volunteer work during the summer / for 3 weeks. during 出来事がいつ起きたか
for どれくらい続いたのか

for ~のため

These chocolates are for you.
This is a special knife for making sashimi. 目的
I’m dying for an ice-cold drink. 求めて
I jumped for joy when I passed the entrance exam. 原因
Other students sometimes teased her, for she was a bit slow.
Are you for or against the plan? 賛成
He is small for a basketball player. 範囲
My Dad’s pretty fit for his age.
I’ve been at this school for 3 years.
Come out of the station and keep going straight for about 200 meters.

The train left for Osaka. 大阪に出発した 到着したことまでは含んでいない
The train went to Osaka. 大阪に行った 到着点までを含む

I love caring for animals. 世話をする
Would you care for a cup of tea? 紅茶は如何でしょうか?
We all feel for you at this time. 同情する
My parents pay for my education.
Quick! Send for a doctor! よびにやる
What dose ASEAN stand for? 表す
Red is for danger.
She’s preparing dinner for herself. 独力で
I have to prepare for our school trip to Kyoto. 準備する get ready for
Let’s keep this money for a rainy day. まさかのときのために
What did you say that for? 何のために
Hey, you wash the dishes for a change! いつもと変えて
These used textbook are for sale.
I’m looking for my locker key.
I spent hours searching for information.
I’m waiting for the train.
We’re hoping for good weather during the school festival.
I’m longing for this lesson to finish!
What do you wish for? 何をお望み?
Teaching calls for a lot of patience. 必要とする
Naomi is always asking me for help with her homework.
My brother blames me for everything! …について~を非難する
He’s bright, but he failed the test for lack of effort. ~が無くて
I’ve been into hip-hop for a long time.
Can you stay here for a while? 暫く
I talked with a foreigner for the first time yesterday.
For my part, I’m happy to volunteer. 私としては
My Mom’s pretty cool for her age. 歳の割には

from ~から

Our flight leaves from Terminal 2.
I live far away from my school.
Cheese is made from milk.
My grandpa died from a heart attack.
From what I hear, the team is really strong. 聞いたところでは
Japanese rice is different from Thai rice. 区別
I can’t tell diet coke from ordinary coke.

Have you heard from Kazue recently?
Far from being safe, this area is actually very dangerous. ~遠く離れて
a week from today 来週の今日
My broken arm prevented me from taking part in the final.
Students are prohibited from wearing makeup. 禁止
Students school refrain from any form of cheating. 慎む
From my point of view, it’s great to have international students.
Judging from your face, I guess you didn’t pass the test. ~から判断すると
More and more young people suffer from depression. ~で苦しむ

in ~の中

There’s ice cream in the fridge.
She lives in Kyushu.
Doesn’t she look cute in her light pink top?
I’m really interested in photography.
Sudoku puzzles vary greatly in difficulty.
You can do the test in pen or pencil.
I don’t know how to say that in English.
I can swim 50 meters in less than 22 seconds.
I’ll be back in 5 days [in 2 hours / in 10 minutes].

X I’ll be back after 10 minutes.
O I’ll be back after lunch. 出来事の順序

All students must fill in this questionnaire. 書き込む
Someone broke in and stole my computer. 押し入る
Sorry to break in, but the Principal wants to see you. 会話に割り込む = cut in
I believe in him.
Drop in for a coffee anytime, OK?
Intelligence does not consist in knowing lots of facts. ~にある
The solution to bullying lies in more communication.
Please hand in your assignment by next Friday. 提出する
We will never give in. 屈服する
A serious recession has set in. [好ましくない天候・季節などが]始まる
Many people get taken in by internet scams. 吸収する・だます

into ~の中へ

Toshi went into the girls’ restroom by mistake. So embarrassing!
The kid crashed into the fence, trying to make the catch.
I’m sure your son will grow into a fine young man.
I always got into trouble at junior high school. トラブルになる
I can’t go into that right now – I have a class in 5 minutes. 詳しく検討する
The Principal went into detail about the new school exchange program. 詳細に述べる
We must take into consideration her academic record up until now. 考慮する これまでの
I bumped into one of my old junior high school classmates at Tokyo Disneyland. バッタリ出会う = run into bumper バンパー
Junji has suddenly changed into a serious student. What happened? 変化
Who talked you into doing such a thing? ~を説得して…させる
The teacher shouted at her and she burst into tears. 急に~し出す
Now we’re trying to put these new ideas into practice in the classroom. 実行する

of ~の

the last chapter of the book その本の最終章
部分 全体
the captain of the team
a member of the volleyball club
a cup of tea 分量
a piece of apple pie
the number of students
the death of the former Principal 説明
the problem of how to motivate students
the invention of the computer
a man of courage 性質
a woman of compassion 情け深い
an issue of importance
This is an issue of great [ some / little / no ] importance. 大変重要、ある程度、ほとんど、全く
This class is of no use.
Such comments are of no help.
It’s so kind of you to help me. 明確化
It’s so generous of you to give up so much of your time.
Many students are afraid of making mistakes. 形容詞等とのコンビネーション
I’m sure of your success.
My brother only thinks of himself.
I informed him of the news.

on ~の上

Put your homework on my desk. 接触
There’s a big stain on the classroom ceiling.
How much money do you have on you?
On hearing her exam results, Sayaka screamed with joy.

He was on a bicycle [ motorbike / horse ]. 乗り物前置詞
She got in the car [ the taxi / the boat ].
I got on the plane [ train / bus / ship ] to London.

My school is on the Chiyoda Line. 線上
She lives on the liver.
He’s gone to Vietnam on business. 活動中・進行中
on duty 勤務中
on holiday
on vacation
on sale
The TV is on.
The light in the school gym are on.
Life goes on. ~し続ける
She talked on and on about her problems.

I think it’s OK to put pressure on students. 圧力
I can’t concentrate in class – I have so many things on my mind.
concentrate on ~に集中する
emphasis on ~への協調
influence on ~への影響

Spiders live on flies. 支える
be based on
depend on

I can’t ask my teachers to take on more work. 引き受ける
The school nurse is always on hand. 手近に・手元に
Please call on us anytime. 訪問する
It’s Manami’s first day at junior high school so keep an eye on her, OK? 目を離さない
He insisted on paying. 強く主張する

If you steal from the store, you will be fired on the spot. その場で
I was on the point of giving up, but the coach kept encouraging me. ~しようとしている
on board 乗って
dwell on 詳しく述べる[くよくよ考える] on the verge of ~しようとしている

I fell in a puddle on my way home from school. 途中で
She’s on good terms with all her classmates. いい関係で
Are you on the phone? 電話を持っている
He is on the phone. 電話中

The movie we’re going to watch in today’s class is based on a true story.
I didn’t do it on purpose, sir! わざと
I prefer to study on my own. 独りで
I know I can count [ depend / rely ] on my teammates. 頼る

Nobuko really gets on my nerves. イライラさせる
Parents shouldn’t impose too many rules on their kids. 課す、押し付ける
I’m not keen on J-Pops. ~が好き

It’s amazing how many high school girls are on a diet.
on fire
on holiday
on vacation

Can you turn on the air-conditioner? つける ⇔ turn off
switch on

Teachers are always on the go. 働きづめ
My boyfriend and I have been dating on and off for about 2 years. 断続的に
I promise I won’t be late for class from now on. これから

on time 時間通り
in time 間に合って
at times 時折

時を表す
「点」が意識

(1)時刻
at 7:30
at noon
at midnight

(2)「点」と感じられる時間

at present
at the moment
at breakfast [ lunch / dinner ] time
at night

(3)年中行事
at Christmas
at Easter

「日」が意識

(1)日
on Monday
on October 13

(2)日が意識される
on Sunday afternoon
on the following evening

「時間幅」が意識

(1)1日の中の時間幅
in the morning
in the afternoon
in the evening
in the day
in the night

(2)週・月・季節・年
in the next week
in February
in (the) spring
in 2009

over ~の上

Our school motto can be seen over the main entrance.
Most of my teachers are over 40.
Our school bus can barely go over 30kph. It’s soooo slow!

The thieves climbed over the school wall. 乗り越える
She got over the breakup with her boyfriend.

Put the cover over the projector. おおう

All my team fell over in the tug-of- war game. 倒れる 半分
On the first day of our school ski trip, I fell and rolled over and over down the slope. 回転 倍

Come and see me when class is over. 終わる
Could you please look over my paper? 目を通す
My poor cat was run over by a car. [車で]ひく
My son will take over the company when I retire. 引き継ぐ
oversee 監督する

We have students from all over the world at my school.

Turn over the page, everyone. ひっくり返す
OK, let’s go over what we studied in the last lesson. 繰り返す
This homework is terrible. Do it over. 繰り返す
Increase your allowance? Let me think it over. よく考える
look over よく吟味する
talk over じっくり話す

to ~へ

I wen to the ball game with my Dad.
Attach a recent photo to the university application form.
I love dancing to hip-hop music.
I prefer music to math.

I listen to my iPod on the way to school.
listen for ~を聴こうとして聞き耳を立てる
listen in 盗み聴きをする

The train was delayed, so I got to school 40 minutes late.
Keep to the right.
I ‘ll tell you if you promise to keep it to yourself.
If we all stick to the same story, we won’t get in trouble.
Stick to it! がんばれよ!
So, Saki, you think the rules regarding school uniforms don’t apply to you?

Your conclusion must be short and to the point. 的を射る
Much to our disappointment, Yuri didn’t pass the entrance exam.

Lessons should be fun, at least to a certain extent. ある程度
To the best of my knowledge, the TOEIC test is held 8 times a year. 私の知る限りでは
to the best of one’s ability 力の及ぶ限り
to one’s heart’s content 心ゆくまで

toward(s) ~へ
forward 前に
backward 後ろに
homeward ふるさとへ

I saw Mayu heading towards the library.

through ~を通して
I taught my dog to jump through a hoop.
I passed the exam through hard work.
I found out about the bullying through one of my friend.

We prepared for the school festival all through the night. ~中(始めから終わり・端から端まで)
from April through May 31

Didn’t you know? Asami and I are through. 終わって

You can watch TV once you get through your homework. 終える
Could you put me through to the Principal, please? 電話をつなぐ
fall through 失敗する
Kie’s going through a bad time at school. 経験する・詳しく調べる・終える

under ~の下

I found my cell phone under my school bag.
If you’re under 20, you’re not supposed to drink.

When I go to university, I want to study under the best professor. 監督下、影響下
I’m afraid my son has fallen under the influence of some bad boys at school.

Our new school gym is now under construction. 未完成

Under no circumstances is anyone to use a cell phone in class. 状況下
The whole question of truancy is now under discussion. 検討中 不登校
under repair 修理中
under way 進行中

The cat was hiding underneath the stairs. 隠されていて見えない

His left leg was amputated below the knee. 低さ 「おおわれて」のニュアンスはない 切断された

They danced beneath a starlit sky. 堅く、フォーマル

with ~と

Do you want to go out with me? 場所つながり
I haven’t got my purse with me.
I like girls with blonde hair.

I tried to eat fish with chopsticks, but I failed miserably. 道具・材料
I took lots of pictures with my new camera.
Rena made a bracelet with gum wrappers!

I couldn’t play because I was in bed with the flu. 原因ー結果のつながり

I guess I’ll get to like my new part-time job with time. 時間つながり

She went back to her desk with a big smile on her face. 付帯状況
She ran out of the classroom with tears streaming down on her face.
He left the soccer pitch with his whole body covered in mud!

I’ll share my chocolate bar with you.
It’s hard to compete with Kaito, he’s so good.
connect ~ with …
identify (…) with ~ …と同じモノと考える
coincide with … …と一致する
compare with … …と比較する

For once, I agree with you! 今度ばかりは
I agree to your plan.

He arrived at the party together with his girlfriend.
I’d love to get together with you some time soon.

I had words with my daughter again about the way she dresses. She is so stubborn! 口論をする
have a word with 話をする

Do you think this top goes with the skirt?

To begin with, your sense of humor sucks! 最悪

Get lost, Toshi! This has nothing to do with you. 関係がない あっち行けよ!
something to do with 関係がある

I couldn’t stand to part with my iPod! 手放す・止める・廃止する
dispense with

She plays the piano with such ease. 簡単に
with difficulty やっと
with pleasure 喜んで

How many of you help your Mom with the housework? 手伝う
provide … with
be filled with … 満たされている
charge … with 告訴する

What’s the matter with you? どうしたの?

Our math teacher is always finding fault with us. あら探しをする

How come you are so popular with the girls? どうして
To be honest, I’m not very familiar with classic music.

How are your children coping with the divorce? 対処する 離婚

within ~以内に

If you’re not here within 5 minutes, I’m leaving.
There’s no smoking within the school grounds.

without ~なしで

I can’t believe they went to karaoke without me.

It goes without saying that a good education helps get a good job. 言うまでもなく

I think we should be paid according to our performance, not our age.
It was a difficult event to organize, but luckily everything went according to plan. 計画通り
According to an NHK survey, only 8% of high school students have part-time jobs.

Your paper is very good apart from a few careless grammar mistakes. ~は別にして

As for you guys, you can clean the area around the school entrance. ~については
Overall, I’m doing fine. As for my new school, er … not so good.
I don’t mind Mami joining us, but as for Noriko, no way!

I’m puzzled as to how I made such a silly mistake. ~については 不思議だ

As of next month, all classes will be held in the new building. ある特定の日時から = as from

because of

Did anyone else get punished besides you and Tetsuya? ~に加えて
Japanese high school teachers have to do so many other things in addition to teaching their classes.

I’ll date anyone but Saori. ~を除いて
nothing but ~以外何も
all but ~以外すべて

but for ~を除けば

Today, I came to school by way of the park. ~経由で
Let me tell a real-life story by way of illustration. 実例として ある実生活の話

Our school team won the baseball tournament by means of hard training and a fighting spirit. ~によって

due to ~が原因で
owing to

We are open every day except Monday. ~を除いて

The roads were clear except for a few cars. ~がなかったとすれば(…だ)という条件節にはforが必要

for the sake of ~のために

There is a park in front of our school.

in spite of ~にも関わらず
despite

Can I have soba instead of udon? ~の代わりに

like ~のような

on account of ~のせいで

On behalf of all the students, I wish to thank the teachers for their patience and dedication. ~の代わりに
I’ve come to this PTA meeting on behalf of Kaya’s parents.

There’s a bowling alley opposite the city hall. ~の反対側

thank to ~のおかげで

with regard to ~に関して
with respect to
With regard to discipline, I think we need to be much stricter.

31-1 前置詞の種類- 英文法大全 - 英文法 英語 文法 表現 用法 英語学習

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