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subjects, verbs, basic sentence patterns 主語・動詞・基本文型

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英文の基本構造

A. 基本文型

I walk my dog every day. 他動詞型
I walk every day. 自動詞型

I got a fantastic present. 他動詞型
I got there at 3 o’clock. 自動詞型
I’ll get you a nice T-shirt. 授与型

B. 修飾方向

That is a red sweater. 限定
That sweater is red. 説明

To everyone’s surprise, a 12-year-old boy won the tournament.
My son is 12 years old.

①限定ルール
Nancy is very tall. 程度を表す副詞→形容詞
I found the dog. 限定詞→名詞
She may be ill. 助動詞→動詞
The United States is an English-speaking country.

②説明ルール
John is a student. be動詞
John is yelling. 進行形
John was bullied. 受動文
I met her at the bus stop. 場所を表す副詞
I met her at 7 pm. 時を表す副詞

The boy yelling is my brother.
He came into the classroom yelling.

③穴埋め修飾
This is the boy Nancy loves.
This is the boy who loves Nancy.
Do you have anything to drink?
I need someone to go out with.

Red is the color of passion. 【名詞】
I love red. 【名詞】
I love that red dress. 【限定】
That dress is red. 【説明】
The iron is burning red. 【説明】

Google is an Internet search and advertising company.
I googled him.

C. 配置転換

Are you a student?
Am I surprised!

What a nice camera you have!
( You have a nice camera.)

Yesterday, we had a party.

D. 時表現

I ate alligator tails. 現在・過去
I’ve eaten alligator tails. 進行形、完了形

①現在形
②過去形
③現在進行形
④過去進行形
⑤現在完了
⑥過去完了
⑦未来形

It has stopped raining. 【直近の出来事】
I have visited London. 【経験】
We have been friends for a long time. 【継続】
Can I talk to Cathy? – She has gone shopping. 【結果】
Be careful! I’ve just painted it. 【直近】+【結果】

There is an apple on the table.
There is a mosquito on the ceiling.
Matsudo is on the Joban line.
Spiders live on flies.
He has a lot of things on his mind.
On hearing the news, he ran to tell all his family

1.主語

A. 「主語」とは?

I like English.

B. 主語のつかまえ方

My American friend loves natto.
The guy surrounded by girls over there must be Dan. He’s so popular.

C. 主語の「資格」は特にない

The music teacher blew his top in class today. 人
My friend’s dog peed on my foot! モノ
Brad’s birthday party was awesome. コト
Having a part-time job is a valuable experience for students. -ing形
To have a part-time job is a valuable experience for students. to 不定詞
That he was faking his illness was obvious to everyone. that節 The fact that he was faking~
Where you got your nose pierced is not important. It’s WHY! wh節
Whether you cheated on me or not doesn’t interest me because we’re through! whether節
Under the doormat must be the stupidest place to leave a key. 前置詞句

D. 無生物主語

The news made us all excited. = When we heard the news, we all become excited.
The sign says you can’t swim in this lake.
My Gothic Lolita clothes cost a fortune.
This road takes you to the stadium.
Her good looks actually hurt her acting career.

2.動詞

We are happy. Be動詞
I like dogs. 一般動詞

基本文型①他動型

My boyfriend kissed my sister!

I know Monet.
I know about Monet. いろいろと知っている
I know of Monet. 聞いたことがある

I play baseball [ tennis / rugby / soccer ].
I do/practice judo [ yoga / karate ].
I sky [ skate / fence ].

基本文型②自動型

My brother swims really fast.

I looked at the girl. ~を見る
look over 目を通す
look through よく検討する
look into 調べる
look for 探す

He shot the bird. 撃ち落とした
He shot at the bird. 目掛けて撃った

基本文型③説明型

A. 説明型(be動詞)

My cousin is a delinquent kid. 非行
My cousin is very moody.
My cousin is at the bowling alley.

B. 説明語句の自由

Gary was angry at me. 形容詞句
a chef. 名詞句
on duty. 前置詞句
fishing. -ing形 進行形
injured playing soccer. 過去分詞形 受動形
to regret his foolish behavior. to 不定詞

The trouble is that we don’t have enough money. that節
The problem is what we should do if the plan fails. wh節
The question is whether we cancel our trip or not. whether節

C. 説明型(一般動詞)

Many workers have became jobless. ~になる

All the food went rotten. 変化
I’m getting hungry, Mom. When’s dinner?
The autumn leaves are turning red and gold.
Everyone grows old.

The audience remained silent during the national anthem. ある状態に留まる
It’s important to stay calm in an earthquake.
I exercise every morning to keep fit.

Doesn’t she look gorgeous in that dress? 知覚印象
My hair feels much softer with this new conditioner.
The new video game sounds amazing.

She seems / appears stressed out. 判断
His plan proved successful.
Her prediction turned out right. 予言

基本文型④授与型

I gave the guy my cell phone number. 即物的な手渡し
My parents bought me an iPad.
We wrote our teacher thank-you poems.
I wonder who sent me this Valentine card.

Mika tells me all the school gossip. 抽象的な手渡し
My Grandma taught me Korean.
My Mom used to read me bedtime stories when I was a kid.

My old scooter costs me a lot of time and money. マイナスの授与
It took me 3 hours to get home from school today, owing to the typhoon.
The hotel charged us $50 for losing our room key!

She brought this chair to me. 到達点
She brought this chair for me. ~のために 受益者

基本文型と動詞

Tips 1: 同じ動詞で複数の型

①自動型・他動型共用
自動詞型 他動詞型
The chair moved. I moved the chair.
I’m flying to Singapore tomorrow. Kids love to fly the kite.
The door opened. He opened the door.

②rise(上がる)ー raise(上げる)、lay(横たえる)ーlie(横たわる)
The sun rises in the east. He raised his hand.
I like to lie on the beach. He laid his hand on my shoulder.

lie-lay-lain lay-laid-laid

③連想
She walks everyday. I walk my dog every day.
He runs fast. He runs a restaurant.
He sat the glass on the table.
I can’t stand his attitude.
I went there. Everything went rotten.

Tips 2: 訳は同じでも型が違う動詞

I looked at the dog. I saw the dog.
I arrived in Phenix. I reached Phenix.

Tips 3: 型を間違えやすい動詞

We discussed the matter.
Don’t mention it.
I married Catherine.
I told him.
I entered the room.
I visited London.
She approached me.
My son resembles me.

I complained to him.
I apologized to him.
I agreed with him.

目的語説明文

Everyone believed him a genius.

I saw a cockroach in the kitchen. 前置詞句
I saw the players training. -ing形
Harry saw Lucy bullied by her classmate. 過去分詞形

I saw Mary cross the street. 知覚+動詞原形

I heard her play the piano. 原形 (習慣的に)弾くのを聞いた 伝聞
I heard that she plays the piano. that節 ピアノを弾くって聞いた 生 →レポート文

I saw Harry punch the bully. ~するのを見た
I saw Harry punching the bully. ~しているところを見た

I’ll do anything to make you happy. 使役+動詞原形

I got one of my classmates to help my sister with her homework.

D. to 不定詞を説明語句に
My parents always tell me to study harder! 働きかける
Why don’t you ask the ALT to help you with your English?
I’ll persuade my Dad to give us a ride.

order
force
compel

Of course I want her to go out with me, but she’s not interested.
My parents won’t allow me to stay out after midnight.
Thank goodness they’ve gone. I didn’t expect them to stay so long.

レポート文

I think Mary is gorgeous.

Tom said to me he loved me.
He promised me he would try his best from now on.
I’m afraid we cannot give you a refund.
I’m so sad he lost his job.
Sorry I’m late!

I didn’t know whether / if you had already paid the bill.

I don’t know whether to attend the party.

I didn’t know where I could get tickets for the concert.
Does anyone know when the baseball camp begins?
The teacher explained why bullying is bad.
I don’t have a clue how they did it.

Nobody knows the way he did it. He’s just a genius!

I ‘ll tell you when to press the bottom, OK?
Help! I have no idea what to buy my girlfriend for her birthday.
Excuse me. I’m not sure how to fill out this application form.

C. 遠回し疑問文
Tell me what kind of music you like.
This is my country’s dish. I wonder if you’ll like it.
Do you know where the nearest convenience store is?

By the way, where are you from?
So, are you free this evening?

What kind of music do you like?
Tell me what kind of music you like.

She says she isn’t going to marry him. コミュニケーション動詞の現在形
I hear that the PTA is going to hold a fund-raising concert next month.
Kaori tells me that Kenji is going to be expelled from school. 退学

命令文

Concentrate!
Be more confident.

Pass me the soy sauce, please. 柔らかく

You haven’t seen the YouTube video? Take a look at it, man. It’s awesome. 相手にとって好ましいこと
This apple pie is delicious. Try it!

Don’t speak to me like that again, OK? 禁止
Don’t be nervous. You’ll be fine.

Let’s order pizza tonight. 勧誘
No, Let’s not order pizza tonight.
Let’s order pizza tonight, shall we?

Please lend me 5 bucks. (= Lend me 5 bucks, please.) 依頼
Will/Can you lend me 5 bucks?
Would/ Could you lend me 5 bucks?
Would/Could you please lend me 5 bucks?
Won’t you lend me 5 bucks?
Would you mind lending me 5 bucks?

You, keep out of this! It’s none of your business. 強調
Do try and pay attention.
Never say never!
Don’t you ever raise your voice at me again!

There文

Mommy, there is a strange-looking guy at the door.

Tom is in the park.

A: I can’t think of anyone to take Anna’s place, can you?
B: Ah! There’s Heather!

基本動詞

He went to the museum.
Poor Granny has gone.
You are simply not up to the job. You have to go.
As far as dress code is concerned, anything goes. 適用する
The milk has gone sour. 変化する
Your dad has gone to the bank.
I don’t know where the keys are. – Well, go and find them [ Go find them ].
Let’s go swimming / skiing.
For here or to go? 店内でお食べになりますか、それともお持ち帰りですか?

Where do you come from?
A watch like that doesn’t come cheap.
Mmm… Nothing exciting comes to mind.
the coming year 次の年
the coming trend
May all your dreams come true. 変化する
Things sometimes go bad but they usually come good again.
He is completely gone.
I came to really like spicy food. ~になる
How come I wasn’t invited? どうして Whyのくだけた表現
How come Helen didn’t make it to the party?

There’s a free shuttle bus that runs between the airport terminals.
That movie made shivers runs down my spine. 震え 背筋
I took the small road that runs parallel to the expressway.
Who left the tap running? 蛇口
I have a runny nose. 鼻水
The well has run dry. 変化する
He gave me tips on how to run a meeting.

I’ll bring my guitar.
The internet has brought many changes to our everyday lives.

That’s a heavy backpack you’re carrying.
Millions of people now carry the AIDS virus.

My husband always drives too fast.
My mother-in-law drove me out of the house!
Spam mail drives me nuts. 気が変

He left for Manila this morning.
Oh no, I left my wallet at home.
Leave everything to me, OK? 全部任せてくれ

Everyone knows hot air rises.
Food price have risen dramatically.
What happened to him after he rose to fame?
I never rise before midday on weekends.

Be careful or you’ll fall!
I lost control and fell head first into the snow.
The number of students is falling every year.
He fell ill while we were on holiday.
He fell asleep on our first date!

Turn left at the next corner.
Turn the steaks after about 3 minutes.
Turn the TV on – the match is about to start.
I love it when the leaves turn golden yellow in the fall.

If you pass a big park, you’ve gone too far.
The days pass too quickly when you’re on holiday.
Hey, I passed my driving test!

I think I need to take an aspirin.
The burglars took my jewelry and cash.
I took lots of photos on my trip.
We can take up to 100 guests in our restaurant. 受け入れる
He didn’t take his doctor’s advice.
I’ll take the black boots. 選択
I usually take the bus to school.
I’ll take you to the airport.

I put a calendar on the wall.
I put salt in the cake instead of sugar!
I can’t believe they put Jerry on the committee.
The government should put more emphasis on education.
To put it bluntly, you’re an idiot! ぶっきらぼうに

Just set those boxes on the table. カチッと置く
I’ve set the alarm for 6:30 am.
Have you set a date of the wedding yet?
You have to wait until the plaster sets. 石膏

I got a Valentine’s card from Satomi.
How did you get her number?
How about getting Chinese food for dinner tonight?
I don’t get it. I mean, he’s not good-looking but the girls is all over him.
We’ll never get there on time with all this traffic. 到達する、~するようになる
I’d like to get to know you better.
I’d better go home – It’s getting late. 変化
Why did she get so upset? [ Why was she so upset?] I often get my old brother to help me with my homework.
My sister likes to get me really worked up. 怒らせる
I have to get all this work done by this afternoon.
I finally got my printer working properly.
I got / was caught speeding yesterday. 受動態(~される)

I gave my girlfriend a silver bracelet.
I hope I don’t give you my cold.
Can anyone give me a ride?

My husband made a lovely coffee table.
Can you make the tough decisions?
6 and 4 makes 10.
I must make an appointment with the dentist.
I made friends with Chris.
What do you make of the latest fashion trend? of = out of

Our company has nearly 50 branches.
I have a terrible headache.
How much time do we have?
have dinner
have a baby
have a bath
have a good time
I had beer. I drank beer.

Just let me check my e-mail.
I won’t let them hurt you.
Let’s talk it over. よく話し合おう

I’ve already looked in my bag – the keys are not there. 目を向ける
Can you look at my computer? It keeps freezing.
Look, I’m really busy right now, OK?

Hey, it’s good to see you again. 会う・付き合う
Are you still see that woman from your office?
Yes, I see your point. 理解する
OK, I see if I can get some tickets for you. 心とつながる
I just can’t see Gill as a teacher, can you?
See if there’s any mail, will you?
I’ll see that the apartment is left spick-and-span. 目配りをする ピカピカにする
Go and chat with the guest while I see to the drinks.

I love watching my two puppies at play. 注視する
I need to go to the bank. Can you watch the kids for a while?
I have a funny feeling we’re being watched.
I watched Pokemon last night.

Do you listen to classical music? 耳を傾ける
My husband hardly ever listens to my opinion.

I can’t hear you very well – It’s an awful line. 聞こえる
I hear that Haruka is moving back to Japan.
Have you heard from your daughter yet?

× I’m seeing the pandas.
〇 I can see the pandas.
× I’m hearing the bells.
〇 I can hear the bells.
× I’m tasting the red wine in the sauce.
〇 I can taste the red wine in the sauce.
× I’m smelling perfume.
〇 I can smell perfume.
× I’m feeling the pain.
〇 I can feel the pain.

Would you like to taste the wine? 【動作】味見したい?
Can you taste the cinnamon in this wine? 【向こうからやってくる】~の味がする?

She speaks 5 languages fluently. 音声を出す
I would be delighted to speak at the conference.
I’ve spoken to the manager, and we can change rooms immediately.

I think we need to talk. コミュニケーションする

I don’t want to talk about that right now. 話し合いたくない
speak 口にしたくない

I said, “I love you!” 言葉に焦点
Sorry, what did you say?
He says that he’s tied up at work.
What does the sign say?
My watch says 10:50.

Don already told me the result. メッセージに焦点
She told me that she didn’t love me anymore.
My intuition tells me that I should trust the guy. 直感
How can you tell real leather from imitation? わかる
I could tell straightaway he was lying.

I told them to be here by 7. 働きかける
You already told me that joke. 手渡し

He asked me why I stood him up.
I’m going to ask Rebecca to marry me.

I know you’re an honest guy. 確信
I know I don’t stand a chance of winning.
Do you know what I mean? わかる・気づく・経験する
When I saw her face, I knew that something was wrong.
I’ve never known a flood like this.

I think she’s an amazing singer. 他動型で使えない(×think him)
There’s so much noise I can’t think.
When you think about this job, it isn’t so bad after all. いろいろと考える
What do you think of this job? (漠然と)考える

Can you believe that?
I believe in the boss. ボス(人格、行いなど)を信じる
I believe the boss. ボス(の言うこと)を信じる

I want some cherry pie. 欲しい 切実な欲求
My mon wants me to go shopping with her.
You want to show more respect, young man. 必要
Our bedroom wants painting.

Would you like a glass of wine?
I’d like to speak English fluently.

01文- 英文法大全 - 英文法 英語 文法 表現 用法 英語学習
14-1 動詞の種類- 英文法大全 - 英文法 英語 文法 表現 用法 英語学習

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