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temporal expressions 時制

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この記事は約16分で読めます。

0.時制一覧

現在過去未来
(単純)現在形(単純)過去形(単純)未来形
進行現在進行形過去進行形未来進行形
完了現在完了形過去完了形未来完了形
完了×進行現在完了進行形過去完了進行形未来完了進行形
現在過去未来
He cleans it.He cleaned it.
進行He is cleaning it. He was cleaning it.
完了He has cleaned it.He had cleaned it.He will have cleaned it.
完了×進行He has been cleaning it.

1.時の無い文

Kiss me! 命令文
Be quiet!

I always insist that my staff be well dressed. 願望・要求・提案
They are demanding that she pay in cash.
I propose that the money be spent on library books.
I propose that the money should be spent on library books.
It is important that you give 100% to your job.

2.現在形

A. 現在を含め広く成り立つ

I’m a student.
I know 3 languages.
Humans are social animals.
Did you know that a hen lays about 228 eggs a year? – Who cares?!

B. 現在の習慣

My Dad catches the commuter train into the city.
I practice karate really hard.
I’m a soccer player. I practice 6 hours a day, and I play 2 matches a week. 自己紹介

What are you doing? 今何をやっているか?
What do you do? 職業は?

C. 思考・感情

I think it’s a waste of time.
I love chocolate crepes.
His fans adore him.

D. 宣言

I promise I won’t be late again.
I suggest you add more salt.
I apologize for behaving like a jerk last night.

E. 実演(今まさに展開していく状況)

I chop the carrot into small cubes like this.
Watch carefully. First, I shuffle the cards like this. Then, …
Here comes the bus. Hurry!

◆ 時は心の中

When you arrive at the hotel, please give me a call. 時
If you exercise every day, you’ll soon lose your weight. 条件

The garage will give us a call when they’ve finished the repairs. 現在+完了の意味

If you are going to ditch me, just say so. 特別に意味を加えたい
If you will keep pulling its tail, of course it will bite you.

3.過去形

It started raining. 雨が降り始めた
Look! It has started raining. 見て! 雨が降り始めた

A. 丁寧表現

I hoped you could lend me some money.

B. 控えめ表現

This would be my 8th trip to Japan, I think.

C. 仮定法

I wish I had a girlfriend.

4.進行形(be + – ing)

I am jogging.
I was jogging.
Is she jogging?
She isn’t jogging.

A. 躍動感

My parents are holidaying in Kenya.

B. 短期間

I’m living at NY at the moment.

躍動感がない動詞は進行形不可
know, have, see, hear, think, love,

× I’m having a pen. 〇 I have a pen.
× I’m knowing the answer. 〇 I know the answer.
× I’m seeing the sea. 〇 I can see the sea.
〇 I’m looking at the sea.
× I’m hearing the waves. 〇 I can hear the waves.
× I’m thinking it’s delicious. 〇 I think it’s delicious.
× I’m loving Johnny Depp. 〇 I love Johnny Depp.
× I’m being happy. 〇 I’m happy.

〇 We are having a good time.
〇 My wife is seeing somebody.
〇 I’m thinking we should have a
big party for Dad’s 60th.
〇 I’m loving it.
〇 john is being selfish – as usual.

C. 動詞との相性

The bus was stopping. 止まりかけているところでした
The bus stopped. 止まりました
I think my poor cat is dying.
The helicopter is landing.

She was coughing. 繰り返し~
My husband was snoring noisily all night.
hiccup しゃっくりする
nod うなずく

D. ~してばかりいる

He is always picking his nose.
My mother is constantly worrying about something or other.

5.現在完了形(have + 過去分詞)

I have finished my homework.
Have you finished your homework?
Has he finished his homework?
He hasn’t finished his homework.

A. 間近に起こったできごと

Oh my gosh, he has peed his pants!
I’ve just met her. たった今
I’ve already done that. すでに
Have you finished your dinner yet? – No, not yet. もう、まだ

B. 経験

We’ve been to Machu Picchu.
Have you ever loved someone? 疑問文に使用  これまで、
= at any time
I have never played golf. したことはない
= not ~ at any time
He has gone to the bank. 行ってしまった = 今はいない

C. 継続

How have you been ? 最近どんな調子ですか?
how are you ?
We’ve been best friends for 10 years.
We’ve been best friends since 2000[our junior high school days / we started playing tennis together].

Keep driving along this road for another 2 kilometers.
Since my parents were not well off, I had to pay my own way through college.

× I’ve had a part-time job since 6 months ago.
〇 I’ve had a part-time job for 6 months.

D. 結果

I’ve dislocated my shoulder, so I can’t play tennis.

6.完了形バリエーション

A. 過去完了

The match had already started when we arrived at the stadium.

B. 助動詞+完了形

I will have finished my homework by 10.
Something may have happened to her. I’m very worried.
He must have forgotten to cancel the reservation.
I should have studied harder.

C. 現在完了進行形

My wife has been shopping all day.

By the time you arrive, I’ll have been working for over 8 hours. No way am I cooking dinner for you!
未来完了進行形

7.未来

It will rain tomorrow. 予測 ~だろう
I’ll give you a hand with the dishes. 意志 ~するよ

It’s going to pour down any minute. 目に見える原因 ~しそう
Are you going to attend the party? 意図 ~するつもり

I’m playing badminton at 3. 予定

I’m going to leave for London on Monday. 意図 ~つもり
I’m leaving for London on Monday. 予定
I leave for London on Monday. 確定

My birthday is next Tuesday. 現時点で確定したゆるがない未来
What time does this train arrive at Tokyo station?
His presentation begins at 1:30 p.m.

This time next week, I’ll be sunbathing on the beach. ~しているところだろう

Are you going on a trip this summer? 予定ですか
Are you going to go on a trip this summer? つもりですか
Will you be going on a trip this summer? お出かけになりますか

Will you be passing the post office? ~ということになっています?

You’re to finish homework before watching TV. 命令
2 students from my class are to be awarded study-abroad scholarships. 予定
At my best friend’s wedding, I met the woman who are to become my wife. 運命

8.仮定法

時表現がない
(動詞原形)
非事実
願望・提案・要求の内容・命令
時表現がある
(現在形・過去形など)
 事実
現在や過去の事実
仮定法反事実

I wish I had a girlfriend.
If you kissed me, I’d scream. しないんだろうけど、キスしたら…
If you kiss me, I’ll scream. するともしないとも思わないけど、

I wish I were richer.
I wish I had been more attentive. Now I have to retake the class.

Oh, if only Bob were here. ~でさえあったらなあ
My boyfriend acts as if he were my boss. あたかも~のように
Suppose I were to offer you a job here, would you accept? ~と仮定しようか
Imagine I were to offer you a job here, would you accept?
It’s (high) time we said good-bye. そろそろ~する時間だ

If you stopped smoking, you would feel much healthier. どうせやめないだろうけど
-> If you stop smoking, you will feel much healthier. もしやめたら健康だよ

If I had ‘connections’, I could get a much better job.
If you went out a bit more, you might make more friends.

If I had studied harder, I would have got a higher TOIEC score. 過去完了+現在完了
If he had been less greedy, he would not have lost so much at the pachinko parlor!

If I had saved more money, I could have gone to Hawaii.
If you had called me earlier, I might have been able to meet you.

If you had followed the instructions, you wouldn’t be in this mess now. 過去完了+現在
If I had planned a bit better, everything would be fine.

A: You know, I’m up to my ears in debt, but I have no idea what to do. ifを使わない
B: I would start by spending only on absolute necessities.

A: Jane has taken her cheating husband back.
B: Really? I would have kicked him out for good!

Without my parent’s support, I couldn’t have started my business. If使わない
Something strange is going on. Otherwise, he would not act like this.
Fifty years ago, nobody could have imagined such advances in technology.
In my place, what would you do?
In your shoes, I wouldn’t have accepted their offer.
But for your encouragement, I would have given up a long time ago.
If it weren’t for sport, my life would be pretty dull.
If it had not been for the pilot’s skill and cool head, the plane would have crashed.

9.時制の一致

John said Ken loved Nancy.
I’m from Zanzibar. – Excuse me. Where did you say you were from?

I’ve always thought that it’s (=it is) good to have school uniforms. 現在完了には合わせなくてよい(現在に視点があるから)

I heard that Judy had had anther baby. Terrific news! 過去+過去完了

Everyone tells me they know nothing about the meeting, 時を意識しない場合
but Sayuri assured me she contacted everyone by email.
I don’t get it.
You’re wrong, Dad, because my teacher told us that man first landed on the moon
in 1969, not 1967.

She said she would go out with me, but she changed her mind. 助動詞
I told them we might be a bit late.
What? But you promised you could finish the job by today.
My mom said I must be home by 11 p.m. 過去形なし
My doctor advised I should quit smoking. 過去形なし
My granddad boasted he used to walk 10 kilometers to school every day. 過去形なし
My boss said I ought to get up to speed on the latest software. 過去形なし
Tom said his Dad would often enjoy on after-dinner stroll when he was. 過去の習慣、would の過去形なし
She said her daughter could play the piano when she was only 5 years old. 過去形なし

He said he would buy me a diamond if he were rich. 仮定法はそのまま
She wished she had a child.

Our teacher taught us that Greenland is the world’s largest island. 時制の一致が起こらない
Eri said her Dad plays mahjong every Saturday.
Brian wrote that he will reach Kathmandu on April 1st.
Your English teacher informed me that he was/is not at all happy with your performance.

She only got the job because she was beautiful.
I had a great tine in Australia because everyone spoke English.

15-1 基本時制- 英文法大全 - 英文法 英語 文法 表現 用法 英語学習
09 態- 英文法大全 - 英文法 英語 文法 表現 用法 英語学習
26-1 時制の一致の適用を受ける場合- 英文法大全 - 英文法 英語 文法 表現 用法 英語学習

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