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Numbers 数字

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fractions 分数

1/2a/one half
1/4a/one quarter
3/4three quarters
1/8a/one eighth
3/7three sevenths
11/16eleven sixteenths
1/100a/one hundredth
6 1/8six and a/one eighth
3 3/4three and three quarters
3 3/5three and three fifths
456/767four hundred (and) fifty-six over seven fundred (and) sixty-seven

decimals 小数

0.4nought / zero point four
0.375nought / zero point three seven five
4.7four point seven
8.05eight point oh / zero five

before nouns  名詞の前

With fractions below 1, we use of before nouns. (1以下の数字は前)

  • three quarters of an hour(1時間の4分の3)
  • seven tenths of a mile(1マイルの10分の7)
  • a third of the students(学生たちの3分の1)

‘Half’ is not always followed by of.

  • half an hour
  • half (of) the students

‘Of’ is also possible with decimals below 1.

  • nought/zero point six of a mile(0.6マイル)
  • ・ 0.1625cm: zero point one six two five of a centimeter(0.1625センチメートル)

However, decimals below 1 are often followed directly by plural nouns.

  • nought/zero point six miles(0.6マイル)
  • nought/zero point one six two five centimeters(0.1625センチメートル)

Fractions and decimals over 1 are normally followed by plural nouns.

  • one and a half hours
  • three and three eighths miles
  • 1.3 millimeters

Note also the structure ‘a … and a half’.

  • ・I’ve been waiting for an hour and a half.

singular or plural verbs  単数の動詞か複数の動詞か

Singular verbs are normally used after fractions, decimals, and other expressions referring to amounts and measurements.

  • Three quarters of a ton is too much.
  • 3.6 kilometers is about 2 miles.

But plural verbs are used when we are talking about numbers of people or things, even after a singular fraction.

  • A third of the students are from abroad.
  • ・Half of the plasses are broken.

When you use these phrases before plural nouns,  both singular and plural verbs are possible.

  • One in three new cars break/breaks down in the first year.
  • One out of five new cars break/breaks down in the first year.

telephone numbers  電話番号

We say each figure separately, pausing after groups of three or four (not two).

0 is often called oh (like the letter O).

  • ・307 4922:  three oh/zero seven, four nine two two

Roman numerals  ローマ数字

Arabic numeralsRoman capital numeralsRoman small numerals
1Ii
2IIii
3IIIiii
4IViv
5Vv
6VIvi
7VIIvii
8VIIIviii
9IXix
10Xx
11XIxi
12XIIxii
13XIIIxiii
14XIVxiv
15XVxv
16XVIxvi
17XVIIxvii
18XVIIIxviii
19XIXxix
20XXxx
21XXIxxi
30XXXxxx
40XLxl
45XLVxlv
50Ll
60LXlx
90XCxc
100Cc
500Dd
1000Mm
1995MCMXCVmcmxcv
2020MMXXmmxx
  • ・It was built in the time of Henry V.
  • ・For details, see Introduction page ix.
  • ・Do question (viii) or question (ix), but not both.
  • ・a fine XVIII Century English walnut chest of drawers. (18世紀のタンスの逸品)

‘cardinal numbers’ and ‘ordinal numbers’  基数と序数

numbercardinalnumberordinal
1one1stfirst
2two2ndsecond
3three3rdthird
4four4thfourth
5five5thfifth
6six6thsixth
7seven7thseventh
8eight8theighth
9nine9thninth
10ten10thtenth
11eleven11theleventh
12twelve12thtwelfth
13thirteen13ththirteenth
14fourteen14thfourteenth
15fifteen15thfifteenth
16sixteen16thsixteenth
17seventeen17thseventeenth
18eighteen18theighteenth
19nineteen19thnineteenth
20twenty20thtwentieth
21twenty-one21sttwenty-first
22twenty-two22ndtwenty-second
23twenty-three23rdtwenty-third
24twenty-four24thtwenty-fourth
25twenty-five25thtwenty-fifth
26twenty-six26thtwenty-sixth
27twenty-seven27thtwenty-seventh
28twenty-eight28thtwenty-eighth
29twenty-nine29thtwenty-ninth
30thirty30ththirtieth
40forty40thfortieth
50fifty50thfiftieth
60sixty60thsixtieth
70seventy70thseventieth
80eighty80theightieth
90ninety90thninetieth
100a/one hundred100tha/one hundredth
1,000a/one thousand1,000tha/one thousandth
10,000ten thousand10,000thten thousandth
100,000a/one hundred thousand100,000tha/one hundred thousandth
1,000,000a/one million1,000,000tha/one millionth

ordinal numbers before a noun, cardinal numbers after a noun

  • the fourth book – Book four (第4巻)
  • the third act – Act Three (第3幕)
  • ・Mozart’s thirty-ninth symphony – Symphony No. 39, by Mozart (モーツァルトの交響曲第39番)
  • ・the third day of the course – Timetable for Day Three(旅程の第3日目)

However, the name of kings and queen are said with ordinal numbers.

  • ・Henry VIII: Henry the Eighth
  • ・Louis XIV: Louis the Fourteenth

最終更新:2019/12/1

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